Zoology Exam III

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lilangel0719
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Zoology Exam III
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2011-10-19 23:37:07
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Zoology Exam III
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  1. What are theories that metazoans came from?
    - Metazoa are multicellular organisms and came from unicellular organisms

    • - 3 theories that metazoa originated from
    • 1. Syncytial (multi-nucleated) ciliated cells
    • 2. Colonial flagellated cells e.g. Volvox
    • 3. Monophyletic
  2. What is the most reliable technique that proves the above theory?
    - Ribosomal RNA sequencing supports theory #2 and is most accepted amongst scientists
  3. What are the three grades of metazoa?
    • - There are three grades of metazoa:
    • 1. Mesazoa: one phylum, all parasitic
    • 2. Parazoa: Porifera & Placozoa
    • 3. Eumetazoa: the rest of animal kingdom
  4. What are characteristics of phylum Mesazoa?
    • - Minute, ciliated, wormlike
    • - All parasitic of invertebrates e.g. octopuses, squids, etc.
    • - Adults are called vermiforms (worm-like)
  5. What are characteristics of phylum Parazoa?
    - Glide over their food using digestive enzymes
  6. What are the charactersitics of clade lophotrochozoans?
    - Major clades: Lophotrochozoans, Ecdysozoa, & Deuterostomia

    • - Bilateral symmetry, triploblastic and protostome
    • - Some develop lophophore: ciliated tenticles or crown for feeding
    • - Some trochophore larva
    • - 18 phyla in this clade: Platyhelminthes (flatworms), rotifers, molluscs & annelids, acanthocephala, nemertea
  7. What are the charactersitics of clade ecdysozoa?
    • - Animals that shed a tough external coat, cuticle
    • - Molting or ecdysis (invertebrates)
    • - Eight phyla, Nematoda, arthropoda, onychophora
  8. What are the charactersitics of clade deuterostomia?
    • - Echinoderms
    • - Hemichordata
    • - Chordata
  9. What are the characteristics of sponges?
    • - Filter-feeding system by ostia
    • - Sessile and all aquatic
    • - Spicules made up of calcium carbonates,
    • silica and spongin
    • -Asexual and sexual reproduction
  10. Why are the sponges called porifera?
    - Many holes under the surface of the body
  11. Why are sponges not good meals for other fishes?
    • - Have spicules and spicules are like bones in the human body, provide structure and is hard and spiny
    • - Skeletal system too prickly and also obnoxious odor
  12. What are the four classes of sponges?
    - Calcarea: with calcareous (calcium carbonate) spicules

    - Hexactinellida: six-rayed siliceous (silicon) spicules

    - Demospongiae: skeleton of siliceous spicules

    • - Sclerospongiea: calcareous skeleton and
    • siliceous spicule
  13. What are characteristics of Calcarea?
    • - Spicules are calcium carbonate, have 3 to 4 rays
    • - Tubular or vase shape
    • - Spicules form a fringe around the osculum
    • - All 3 types of canal systems, all marine
    • - E.g. Sycon, Leucosolenia, Clathrina
  14. What are characteristics of Hexactinellida?
    • - Skeleton of six-rayed siliceous spicules
    • - Body often cylindrical or funnel-shaped
    • - Glass sponges
    • - Habit mostly deep water, all marine
    • - E.g. Venus' flower basket (Euplectella), Hyalonema
  15. What are characteristics of Demospongiae?
    • - Large sponges: bath/horny sponges
    • - Siliceous and all leuconcoid
    • - Leave gemmules behind
    • - Bath sponges lack siliceous spicules, they have spongin instead
    • - One family found in freshwater, all others are marine
    • - E.g. Amphimedon, Cliona, Spongilla, Myenia, Poterion and other bath sponges
  16. What are characteristics of Sclerospongiea?
    • - Spicules may be absent
    • - Small group
    • - Calcareous skeleton: coralline sponges
    • - E.g. Oscarella, Corticium
  17. What are the three types of canals in porifera?
    - Asconoids: flagellated sponges, simplest

    - Synconoids: flagellated canal, larger edition of asconoids

    • - Leuconoids: flagellated chambers water
    • current is through
    • - All freshwater & most marine sponges
  18. What are the different types of cells in porifera?
    - Pinacocytes: helps to regulate surface area of sponge, epithelial cell-like on surface

    - Choanocytes: straining food particles

    -Archaeocytes: phagocytize the food

    • Types of archaeocytes:
    • - Sclerocytes: secrets spicules
    • - Spongocytes: spongin
    • - Collencytes: collagen
    • - Lophocytes: large collagen
  19. What are different types of cells in mesoglea layer?
    - Pinacocytes, choanocytes and archaeocytes
  20. Explain filter feeding of porifera and passage of water in sponges?
    • - Water enters the ostium
    • - Incurrent canal
    • - Porocytes
    • - Radial canal
    • - Apopyle
    • - Spongocoel
    • - Osculum
  21. How do sponges multiply?
    - Asexual and sexual reproduction

    - Asexual by budding and regeneration

    - Gemmules: internal bud

    - Sexual reproduction: monoecious (hermaphroditic)

    -Sperm and oocysts are formed from choanocytes

    - Zygote in parents called viviparous (give birth)

    - Oviparous (lay eggs)

    - Ovoviparous (egg immediately hatches after laying) e.g. shark and scorpion
  22. What are the skeletons of sponges made up of?
    - Sporigin (collagen), calcium carbonate and silica
  23. Sponges are classified based on what?
    - RNA, shape and spicules

    - Not canal type
  24. What are main characteristics of radiate animals?
    • - All aquatic
    • - Two forms of life: polyps and medusae
    • - Exoskeleton or endoskeleton of chitinous, calcareous or protein
    • - Gastrovascular cavity
    • - Mouth, anus and tentacles
    • - Cnidocytes contain the nematocytes (their weapons)
    • - Epitheliomuscular
    • - Asexual and sexual
    • - Planula larva
    • - No respiratory or coelomic cavity
    • - Most are sessile
    • - Easy meals for other animals
    • - Can injure human, cause death
    • - Ectoderm and endoderm
    • - Simplest animal with nerve cells
  25. What are different types of colony in radiate animals?
    - Gastrozooids: feeding colony

    - Dactylozooids: defense colony

    - Gonozooids: male and female, reproductive colony
  26. What are the characteristics of phylum cnidarians?
    • - Mostly marine and a few freshwater
    • - Radial/biradial symmetry
    • - Polyps and medusa

    - Nerve net: neurotransmitter, no myelin, neuromuscular system

    - E.g. Hydroids, sea anemones, jellyfishes and horny corals
  27. What are the classes of cnidarians?
    • 1. Hydrozoa
    • 2. Scyphozoa
    • 3. Cubozoa
    • 4. Anthozoa
  28. What are the differences between medusa stage and polyp stage?
    • A. Polyp or hydroids are sedentary
    • - Aboral & oral end, attach to ocean floor
    • - Tubular
    • - Some form colonies

    • B. Medusa
    • - Bell shape or umbrella, motile
    • - Mouth in the center
    • - Mesoglea is thicker

  29. What are the characteristics of the cnidocytes?
    - Cindoctyes contain: nematocytes, operculum and are born in invaginations in ectodermal cells

    - Nematocyst injects toxin for prey capture and defense

    - Nematocysts = tiny capsules made of stuff like chitin, end of capsule covered by operculum (little lid)

    • - 3 types of nematocytes
    • 1. Penetrants: penetrate & inject poison
    • 2. Volvents: entangle prey
    • 3. Glutinants: adhesive substance for locomotion & attachment
  30. What are the characteristics of class hydrozoa?
    - E.g. Obelia, Hydra, Gonionemus, Physalia

    - Some have medusa, polyp or both stages

    - Colonial; mostly marine but there are freshwater Hydra

    - Velum: a membrane on the subumbrella surface of jellyfish of class hydrozoa
  31. What are the 5 differences between Hydra and the rest of the Hydrozoa?
    • - Live in freshwater
    • - Regenerative
    • - Do not age/die of old age
    • - Mouth opens to gastrovascular cavity
    • - Have testes and ovaries
    • - Budding
    • - Interstitial cells
  32. What are the characteristics of Gonionemus?
    - Marine hydromedusa or hydrozoan jellyfish

    - Medusa is mature

    - Gonads attach to radial canal

    - External fertilization

    - Polyp stage might undergo asexual reproduction by budding or may form medusa
  33. What are the characteristics of Obelia?
    - Colonial marine hydrozoan

    - Sexual stage is free-swimming medusa

    - Medusa similar to Gonionemus but smaller
  34. What are the characteristics of Physalia?
    - Portuguese man-of-war

    - Polymorphism

    • - Look like a single animal, but made up of:
    • •Feeding colony
    • •Reproductive colony
    • •Defensive colony

    - Find float and crest

    - A single colony has both polyp and medusa
  35. What are characteristics of class scyphozoa?
    - All marine, e.g. Aurelia

    - Most of large jellyfish, polyp stage absent or reduced

    - One order is sessile

    - No velum in medusa

    -Sexes are separate, gametes released to gastrovascular cavity

    - Fertilization is internal

    - Ciliated planula --> scyphistoma --> strobila --> ephyra --> medusa

    • - Zygote on oral arms of medusa or
    • in sea water
  36. What are characteristics of Aurelia?
    • - All marine
    • - Most are large jellyfish
    • - Have polyp and medusa stage
    • - Short tentacles
    • - Food caught by mucus
    • - No velum on medusa
    • - 4 oral arms & oral tentacles
    • - Square mouth
    • - 4 gonads
    • - Radial canals
    • - Marginal tentacles
  37. What are characteristics of cubozoa?
    • - Commonly called sea wasp
    • - Stinging dangerous to human
    • - Polyp is small and no ephyra, metamorphosis directly to medusa
    • - E.g. Carybdea marsupialis
  38. What are characteristics of Anthozoa?
    • - Flower animals
    • - All marine
    • - Pharynx or gullet present
    • - Polyps only, medusa absent
    • - Tube anemones and thorny corals
    • - Gastrovascular cavity has septa
    • - Mesoglea has ameboid cells
  39. What are the similarities between Ctenophora and Cnidarians?
    • - Radial symmetry
    • - Aboral and oral grooves
    • - Well-developed mesoglea
    • - No coelomic cavity
    • - Nerve plexus
    • - No organ system
  40. How are Ctenophora different from Cnidarians?
    • - No nematocytes
    • - Distinct muscle cells
    • - Comb plates
    • - No polymorphism or dimorphism
    • - Never colonial
    • - Anal pore
  41. What are characteristics of acoelomates?
    • - Coelom: fluid-filled space between gut and epidermis, surrounded by mesoderm
    • - Coelom filled with mesoderm

    • - Some cephalization
    • - Bilateral symmetry
    • - Platyhelminth or flat worms
    • - True organs
    • - Protostome & spiral cleavage
    • - Simplest excretory & circulatory system
    • - Mesoderm in form of muscle fiber & mesenchyme (parenchyma)
  42. What are characteristics of pseudocolomates?
    - One part of coelom surrounded with endoderm and the other part by mesoderm
  43. What are characteristics of eucoelomates?
    - Fluid-filled space between gut and epidermis
  44. What are characteristics of Platyhelminthes?
    • - Tripoblastic
    • - Bilateral symmetry
    • - Flat dorsoventrally
    • - True muscles
    • - Incomplete digestive system in some
    • - Some have eye spots
    • - Most monoecious


    • - Parenchyma cells
    • - Most monogenea are ectoparasitic
    • - All trematodes & cestoda are endoparasitic
    • - Indirect and direct life cycle
    • - Final host is vertebrates in most cases
    • - Tripoblastic, Cnidarians were not
    • - Body fluid moves by muscular contraction
  45. What are characteristics of class turbellaria?
    • - Free-living, mostly marines
    • - Planarians
    • - Epidermis ciliated on ventral side
    • - Mouth on ventral side, no anus
    • - Simple life cycle
    • - Gastrodermis has phagocytes


    • - Planaria excrete water out, cause no anus
    • - Rid of waste though mouth, excretory pores & tegument
    • - Flame cells for osmoregulation
    • - Three types of neurons: sensory, motor & association
    • - Ocellia or light-sensitive eye spot
    • - Asexual regeneration
    • - Turbellarians are monoecious but practice
    • cross fertilization
    • - Fertilization in female oviduct

    • - Carnivorous
    • - Metabolic waste by diffusion through the body wall
    • - Rhabdites cells
    • - Three types of muscle: longitudinal, circular & radial
    • - Parenchyma cells
    • - Protonephredia = flame bulbs
  46. What are characteristics of class trematoda?
    • - All parasitic flukes
    • - Tegument
    • – Has no cilia
    • – Syncytial
    • - Two suckers
  47. Give 2 reason why tegument is beneficial to platyhelminthes?
    • - Surface of organism changes constantly to avoid being killed by auto-immune systems of host
    • - Absorbs food/nutrients
    • - Increases surface area
  48. Why life cycle of the platyhelminthes is in such a way?
    Egg --> miracidium (get into snail) --> sporocytst (in snail) --> rediae (in snail) --> cercariae ciliated larva --> metacercaria encyst on vegetation or meat --> adult

    - Single egg can rise to many progeny
  49. Name all the diseases associated with platyhelminthes?
    • - Fasciola hepatica - found in US, sheep liver fluke
    • - Fasciolopsis buski - found in US, intestinal fluke (human)

    - Clonorchis sinensis - not found in US, human liver fluke

    • - Schistosoma mansioni - found in Africa, South/Central American, blood flukes (bloody urine), cause dwarfism
    • - Schistosoma japanicum - found in East Asia
    • - Schistosoma haematobium - found in Africa
    • - Schistosoma dermitis - found in US, bird's dropping have eggs and fall in water, go into skin but just causes rash, can be easily cured

    - Paragonimus westermani - found in US, lung fluke
  50. Do class mongenea cause any problems to humans? If not, explain.
    • - Not harmful to humans
    • - All parasitic on gills or external surface of fish
    • - Ectoparasitic
    • - Direct life cycle
    • - Egg --> larva --> omcomiracidium --> adult
    • - Gyrodactylus cylindriformis
  51. What are the most devastating cestods? Explain.
    - Tapeworms
  52. List 4 or more adaptive techniques that cestods developed to be successful?
    • - Proglottid: middle section w/ both male/female reproductive systems
    • - Scolex: helps it to hook on and stay in host
    • - Tegument: increase surface area, food and nutrients are absorb through this
    • - The way the animal is set up from head to toe and in middle is where asexual reproduction takes place (cloning) occurs in scolex, adds segments
    • - Cannot mature in host if there is already an adult of that same species

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