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2011-10-10 17:54:40
psy flashcards

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  1. Sensorimotor Stage
    • Spanning the first two years of life.
    • Infants and toddlers "think" with thier eyes, ears, hands and other sensorimotor equipment
  2. scheme
    a organized way of making sense of experience. Changes with age.
  3. adaption
    process of building schemes through direct interaction with the environment
  4. assimilation
    that part of adaption in which the external world is interpreted in terms of current schemes
  5. accommodation
    That part of adaption in which new schemes are created and old ones adjusted to produce a better fit with the environment
  6. organization
    internal rearrangemtn and linking together of schemes so that they form a strongly interconnected cognitive system
  7. circular reaction
    a means of building schemes in which infants try to repeat a chance event caused by their own motor activity
  8. intentional/goal directed behavior
    a sequence of actions in which schemes are deliberately combined to solve problems
  9. object permanance
    the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight.
  10. A-not-B Search Error
    The error made by 8 to 12 month olds who after an object has been moved from hiding place A to hiding place B, search for it incorrectly in the first hiding place (A)
  11. mental representation
    internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate
  12. deferred imitation
    the ability to remember and copy the behavior of model who are not present
  13. make-believe-play
    a type of play in which children pretend, acting out everyday and imaginary activities
  14. Violation of expectation method
    a method in which researchers habituate infants to a physical event and then determine whether they recover to (Look longer at) an expected event (A variation of the new first event that conforms to physical laws) or an unexpected event (a variation that violates physical laws). Recovery to the unexpected event suggests awarness of that aspect of physical reality
  15. core knowledge perspective
    A perpective that states that infants are born with a set of innate knowledge systems, or core domains of thought, each of which permits a ready grasp of new, related information
  16. mental strategies
    in information processing, procedures that operate on and transform information, thereby increasing the efficinecy and flexibility of thinking and the chances that information will be retained
  17. sensory register
    the part of the mental system in which sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly before they decay or are transferred to working memory
  18. working/short term memory
    the part of the mental system where we activity "work" on a limited amount of information, applying mental strategies to ensure that it will be retained.
  19. central executive
    the conscious part of working memory that directs the flow of information through the mental system by deciding what to attend to, coordinating incoming information with information already in the system, and selecting, applying, and monitoring strategies.
  20. Long term memory
    the part of the mental system that contains our permanent knowledge base
  21. recognition
    the simplest form of memory, which involves noticing whether a new experiuence is identical or similar to a previous one
  22. recall
    the type of memory that involves remembering something without perceptual support
  23. infantile amnesia
    the inability of most people to recall events that happened to them before the age of 3
  24. autobiographical memory
    represenation of special on time events that are long lasting because they are imbued with personal meaning
  25. zone of proximal development
    • Vgotsky theory.
    • A range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle along but can accomplish with the help of more skilled partners
  26. intelligence quotient
    A score that reflects and individuals performance on an intellifence test compared with the performances of other individuals of the same age
  27. standardization
    the practice of giving an intelligence test to a large, representative sample which serves as the standard for interpretating individual scores
  28. normal distribution
    a bell shaped distribution that results which individual differences are measured in large samples
  29. developmental quotient
    A score on an infant intelligence test, computer in the same manner as an IQ but based primarily on perceptual and motor responses
  30. Home observation for measurement of the environment (HOME)
    A checklist for gathering information about the quaity of childrens home lives through observation and parental interview
  31. developmentally appropriate practice
    research based standard devised by the National association for the education of Young Children that specify program characteristics that meet the developmental and indiidual needsof young children of varying ages
  32. language acquisition device (LAD)
    In Chomsky's theory, an innate system that contains a universal grammar, or set of rules common to all languages, that permits chidren to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion as soon as they have learned enough words
  33. broca's area
    structure located in the left frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex that supports grammatical processing and language production
  34. Wernicke's area
    a structure located in the left temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex that plays a role in comprehending word meaning
  35. cooing
    pleasant vowel like noises made by infants. beginning aorund twom months of age
  36. babbling
    repetition of consonant-vowel combinations in long strings, beginning aorund six months of age
  37. joint attention
    a state in which child and caregier attend to the same object or event and the caregiver comments on what the child sees
  38. underextension
    an early vocabulary error in which a word is applied too broadly, to a wider colletion of objects and events than is appropriate
  39. overextension
    an easly vocabulary error in which a word is applied too broadly, to a wider collection of objects and eents than is appropriate
  40. telegraphic speech
    toddlers two-word utterances that like a telegram omit smaller and less important words
  41. production
    in language development the words and word combinations that children use
  42. comprehension
    in language development, the words and word combinations that children understand
  43. referential style
    a style of early language learning in which toddles us language mainly to label objects
  44. expressive style
    a style of early language learning in which toddlers use language mainly to ralk about their own feelings and needs and those of other people, with an emphasis on social formulas and pronouns
  45. child directed speech (CDS)
    a form of language adults use to speak to young chuldren, consisting of short sentences with high pitched, exagerrated expression, clear pronunciations, distict pauses between speech sefments, clear gestures to support verbal meaning, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts