CD 373 Exam 2

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CD 373 Exam 2
2011-10-30 20:51:39

CD 378 Exam 2
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  1. Lung Tissue Proper
    • Divided into 5 lobes:
    • -Right Lung: 3 lobes
    • -Upper, middle, lower
    • -Left Lung: 2 lobes
    • -Upper and lower
  2. Skeletal framework for Respiration
    • Vertebral Column
    • Rib Cage
    • Shoulder Girdle
    • Pelvic Girdle
  3. Elastic Cartilage
    • Yellowish coloring
    • High % elastic fibers
    • Rubbery-like
    • Flexible Tissue
    • Found in ear, eppiglottis, and auditory canal
  4. Function of vertebral column
    • protect spinal cord
    • support torso
    • muscle attachment point
    • joints for inter-vertebral motion
    • absorbs shock from walking/sitting/running
  5. Corpus of Vertebrae
    • Body
    • Weight-bearing
  6. Foramen
    allows nerve and vascualr passage
  7. Articulatory Facets
    form gliding joints tetween vertebrae
  8. Lamina
    Curved Bone in Vertebrae
  9. Pedicle
    Attachment to body
  10. Diarthroidial
    Allos great freedom of motion
  11. Cervical Vertebrae
    • Small transverse processes
    • Small corpus relative to other vertebrae
  12. Atlas
    Supports weight of the skull
  13. Odontoid process
    prevents injury to upper spinal cord by limiting pivoting
  14. Lumbar Vertebrae
    • Massive corpus
    • No articulatory facets on transverse process and spinous process, since there are no ribs attached
    • Spinous process directed horizontally
  15. Manubrium
    Facet for collar bone and first rib
  16. Corpus of sternum
    facets for remaining ribs
  17. Xiphoid Process
    Forms synovial joints with ribs
  18. Costo-sternal Joints
    • Synovial
    • Includes an array of ligaments to help attach ribs
  19. Ribs
    • 12 pairs
    • Fall in inferior oblique orientation
    • Ribs 1-10 Interface w. sternum via costal cartilage
    • 11&12 are floaters- No sternal attachement
    • Attached to sternum via costo-sternal joint
  20. Amphiarthrodial
    Limited range of motion
  21. Costo-central articulation
    Gliding joint created between body of vertebrae and head of rib.
  22. Costo-transverse Articulation
    Gliding joint vreated between transverse process of vertebrae and shaft of rib
  23. What changes the vertical dimension of the ribs?
    Flattening of the dome shaped diaphragm
  24. Bucket Handle Rib-Rotation
    • Mediolateral lifting due to rotation of rib along the dorso-ventral axis
    • -Area increases in mediolateral dimension due to raising of ribs
    • -Provides greater available volume for respiration
  25. Pump Handle Rib-Rotation
    • Anterior end of ribs and sternum are elevated and move anteriorly with rotation axis about the head of the rib.
    • -Less effective change in overall lung volume
  26. What is the Pelvic Girdle Composed of?
    • Illium
    • Public Arch
    • Sacrum
  27. Sternocleidomastoid
    • Origin-Manubrium and clavicle
    • Insertion-Mastoid process
    • Action- elevate sternum and clavicle, lifting the upper ribs
  28. Scalenes
    With the head stable, thesee elevate the 1st and 2nd ribs
  29. Pectoralis Major
    • Origin- Medial half of the clavicle, sternum length
    • Insertion- humerus
    • Action- elevate sternum and ribs if the arm is stable, increase transverse (cross-section) dimension of rib cage.
  30. Pectoralis Minor
    • Deep to Pect. Major
    • Origin- Anterior surfaces of ribs 3-5
    • Insertion-coracoid process of scapula
    • Action-depress shoulder and elevate ribs 3-5
  31. Subclavius
    • Origin- undersurface of clavicle
    • Insertion- Junction of rib 1 to sternum
    • Action- fixing clavicle will allow subclavius to elevate rib 1
  32. Serratus Anterior
    • Origin- external surfaces of upper 9 rib laterally
    • Insertion- Wraps around RC, inserts over the entire length of the deep surface of the scapula
    • Action- elevation of lower 9 ribs, if scapula is fixated.
  33. Trapezius
    • Superficial, thick, broad, trapezoid-shaped muscle of upper back
    • Origin-Cranial base, spinous process of cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae
    • Insertion- scapular spine
    • Action- Stabalize shoulder and indirectly the rib cage
    • -"shrug" shoulders
    • -Helps control head movement
  34. Any respiratory function by these three muscles will depend on fixation of the shoulder and neck first.
    • Chest
    • Shoulder
    • Neck
  35. Diaphragm
    • Large circumpennate muscle, divides thoracic from abdominal cavity
    • -Dome shaped
    • -Penetrated by esophogus, aorta, and inferior vena cava
    • Origin- lower perimeter of ribs (7-11), xiphoid process of sternum
    • Insertion- Central Tendon
    • Action-Flattens, drive central tendon inferiorly, inhalation.
  36. General Action of the Diaphragm
    • Increase the volume of thorax and thus create inward airflows and negative pressure changes.
    • -Inspiration action
  37. External Intercostal
    • Superior attachement is nearer the vertebral end than the inferior attachment.
    • Origin-Superficial inferior margin of ribs 1-11
    • Insertion-Superficial superior margin of rib below
    • Action- raise the ribs
  38. Internal Intercostals Interchondrial (III)
    • Lie deep to externals
    • Origin-deep inferior margin of ribs 1-11 within the region of the costal cartilages
    • Insertion-deep superior msrgin of rib below
    • Action-Muscle exerts upward pull to raise the ribs
  39. Levator Costarum
    Slight elevation of posterior rib cage
  40. Serratus Posterior Superior
    • Origin- Spinous process
    • Action- Elevate ribs 2-5
  41. Transversus Thoracis
    • Thin muscle located on the deep surface of the anterior thoracic wall.
    • Origin- Deep surface of sternum
    • Action- Lowering of costal cartilages 2-6
  42. Serratus Posterior Inferior
    • Attaches to inferior borders of the lowest four ribs just beyond their angles.
    • Action- rib lowering to help expiration
  43. Internal Intercostal Interosseous
    • Deep to external intercostals
    • Origion- Inferior margin of ribs 1-11
    • Action- depress and lower ribs 1-11
  44. Quadratus Lumborum
    • Veritcally oriented muscle in deep dorsal lumbar area between 12th rib and iliac crest of pelvis
    • Action- Downward pull on 12th rib (exhalation) or more likely postural control or lower thorax and assisting in abdominal compression activities.
  45. Latissimus Dorsi
    • Powerful broad muscle of lower back
    • Insertion-humerus
    • Action-If arm is stabilized, selective elevation of lower ribs. If lats contract as a complete unit, they compress posterior abdominal wall assisting espiration
  46. Transverse Abdominal
    • Deepest and thinnest of 3 lateral AB muscles, with fibers woursing around the lateral sides of the abdomen
    • -Antagonist to diaphragm. Compress abdominal contents and sides inward
  47. Internal Abdominal Oblique
    Bilateral activation lowers ribs, compresses abd, rotates and flexes trunk
  48. External Abdominal Oblique
    • Thickest of 3 muscles of the lateral abdominal wall and most superficial
    • Lowers ribs and antagonistic to diaphragm. Also compresses front and sides or abdom inward.
  49. Rectus Abdominis
    • Origin- Pubic Bone
    • Depress rib cage and flexion of torso. Can also force abdom wall inward
  50. Primary mucle for inhalation
  51. Respiratory muscles most active during speech
    • Inspiration:
    • Diaphragm, External Intercostals, Internal Intercostals'
    • Expiration:
    • III, Rectus Abdominis, Transverse External and Internal Obliques
  52. What does the chesty wall consist of
    • rib cage wall
    • diaphragm
    • abdominal wall
    • contents of abdomen
  53. How are pulmonary apparatus subdivisions described?
    • as lung volumes and capacities.
    • Liters, ml, or cc (cubic cm)
  54. What do lung capacities do?
    • express the functional state of the system
    • -may include 2 or more lung volumes
    • -"functional combinations" of lung volumes
  55. The volume of air inhaled and exhaled during any single inspiratory/expiratory cycle
    Tidal Volume
  56. TV of an adult male at rest (watching tv)
    ~700 cc
  57. TV with light work (pacing the floor because UL is winning)
    ~1500 cc
  58. TV with heavy work (cheering and jumping because UK came back to beat UL)
    ~2000 cc
  59. What does TV stand for?
    Tidal Volume
  60. What does MV stand for
    Minute Volume
  61. What is the MV per minute for an adult?
    6-9 liters
  62. What is the TV events per minute for an adult
    500-700 air cycle
  63. Quantity of air which can be inhaled beyond that already inhaled in a tidal volume cycle
    Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
  64. Quantity of air which can be exhaled after a quiet of passive exalation
    Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
  65. Quantity of air that remains in the lungs and airways after a maximum exhalation
    Residual Volume (RV)
  66. Quantity of air that the lungs are capable of holding at the height of a maximum inhalation
    Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
  67. TLC=
  68. Quantity of air tat can be exhaled after as deep an inhalation as possible
    Vital Capacity (VC)
  69. maximum volume of air that can be inhaled from resting expiratory level
    Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
  70. IC=
  71. quantity of air in the lungs and airway at the resting expiratory level
    Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
  72. FRC=
  73. What does Natural Resting State mean, when referring to the lungs?
    • Lung tissues have a natural tendancy to collapse and shrink
    • Thoratic Tissues have a natural tendancy to expand and become larger
  74. Lungs and thorax tissues exert a...
    recoil force that is opposite in sign (direction) from each other
  75. Resting position for the Chest Wall-Lungs is:
    the point at which the force of the lungs to shrink is opposed and balanced equally by the force of the rib cage to expand.
  76. What keeps the lungs stuck to the ribs?
    Pleaural Linkage
  77. What is plueral linkage?
    Fluid Linkage
  78. What are the three essential components to keeping the lungs stuck to the rib cage?
    • Pleural Linings
    • Intra-pleural space
    • Intra-pleural Fluid
  79. Pressure within the intrepleural space is (negative/positive) due to opposite recoil tendancies of the tissues
  80. Why is pressure within the intra-pleural place negative?
    • Lung tissue shrinks
    • Rib cage expands
    • One tissue is trying to pull away from another which creates suction (neg. pressure)
  81. Change in lung volumes will produce changes in...
  82. what is the fuel driving our speech?
  83. What does "Brownian Motion" say?
    Air molecules tend to bounce around at random
  84. P=
    • F/A
    • F= applied force
    • A=Area
    • P=Pressure
  85. How are pressure, Applied force, and area related?
    • Pressure is directly proportional to applied force
    • Pressure is inversely related to Area
  86. how do we describe air pressure int he vocal tract?
    how far the lung pressures can displace a column of water or of Hg
  87. What is speech air pressure measured in?
    cmH2O or mmHG
  88. Does pressure move objects?
    No. Changes in pressure do.
  89. What is Boyle's Law?
    Equation that explians the relationship between pressure and volume.
  90. What is the equation of Boyle's Law?
    • P*V=K
    • p is pressure
    • v is volume
    • k is a constant
  91. Pressure and Volume are...
    Inversely proportional
  92. What creates air flow?
    Pressures differences
  93. What is directly related to those eleastic, rebound, and recoil forces that tissues naturally have
    Passive forces
  94. What are the three types of pressures?
    • Alveolar
    • Subglottal
    • Intraoral
  95. What are the three types of airflow?
    • Transglottal
    • Oral
    • Nasals
  96. What are positive pressures associated with?
    exhalation events
  97. What are negative pressures associated with?
    Inhalation events
  98. What are active forces?
    Muscle contraction
  99. What are passive forces?
    • Natural Recoil
    • -muscle
    • -cartilage
    • -ligaments
    • -lung tissue
  100. Passive forces in the pulmonary apparatus
  101. Active forces in the pulmonary apparatus
  102. Passive forces in the chest wall
  103. active forces in the chest wall
  104. +/-
  105. passive forces in the rib cage wall
  106. Active forces in the rib cage wall
  107. Passive forces in the diaphragm
  108. active forces in the diaphragm
  109. passive forces in the abdominal wall
  110. active forces in the abdominal wall
  111. What does the shape of the chest wall tell us?
    something about the mechanical advantages provided for different behaviors
  112. Passively related pressures
    Relaxation Pressures
  113. Relaxation pressures are air pressures generated from
    passive recoil and/or passive rebound forces of respiratory system tissues
  114. When does the resting state of the lung-rib system settle?
    35-38% of Vital Capacity
  115. At rest, pressure produced is...
  116. If you begin at lung volumes above 35-38% VC...
    exhale is passive
  117. If you begin at lung volumes below 35-38%...
    inhale is passive
  118. Lung volume is decreased due to...
    passive elastic recoil forces generated by the rib cage recoil and relaxation of inspiratory muscles
  119. Lung pressure increases to (less than/greater than) atmospheic prssure during quiet exhalation
    greater than
  120. air continues to exit the respiratory system as long as
  121. Non-speech
    Forced Respiration
  122. What 3 things do you need for speech production?
    • Power supply: lungs
    • Sound source: vocal folds
    • Valves/chambers: articulators and cavities
  123. Air has a tendancy to move from regions of (low/high) pressure to regions of (low/high) pressure
    high, low
  124. Wat produces the kinetic energy to drive airflow into and out of the respiratory system?
    Differences in regional pressures
  125. What is the location of air intake in quiet breathing?
  126. What is the location of air intake in speech breathing?
  127. What is the ratio of time for inhalation vs exhalation for quiet breathing?
    • inhale=40%
    • exhale=60%
    • 2 sec duration
  128. What is the ratio of time for inhalation vs exhalation for speech breathing?
    • inhale=10%
    • Exhale=90%
    • (20 sec duration)
  129. What is the volume of air for quiet breathing?
    500-700 cc
  130. What it the volume of air for speech breathing?
    Variable, depending on utterance length and loudness
  131. What is the muscle activity of exhalation for quiet breathing
    Passive- muscles of thorax and diaphragm relax
  132. What is the muscle activity of exhalation for speech breathing?
    Actice- Both thoracic and abdominal mucsle contract to control recoil of rib cage and diaphragm
  133. %VC for life breathing
  134. %VC for speech breathing
  135. %VC for loud speech breathing
  136. What influences volume of air needed
    Loudness of speech
  137. %VC for normal conversational speech
    38&60% VC
  138. %VC for loud speech initiated at high lung volumes
    60-80% VC
  139. %VC for soft speech initiated between
    38&40% VC
  140. Respiratory muscles active during Inspiration
    • Diaphragm
    • External Intercostals
    • Internal Intercostals Interchodrial
  141. Respiratory muscles active during Expiration
    • Internal Intercostals Interosseous
    • Rectus Abdominis
  142. Internal Intercostals Interosseous
    primary muscle generating pulse-like variations in expiratory effort to alter lung pressure during speech
  143. Rectus Abdominis
    antagonistic to diaphragm, active during loud speech and vocalization
  144. Match Passive/Active and Muscular/Nonmuscular
    • Active- Muscular
    • Passive- Non muscular
  145. Broad, fan-shaped muscle positioned on the upper front wall of the rib cage
    Pectoralis Major
  146. relatively large, thin muscle.
    Origin: elevates ribs 2-5
    Insertion: front of scapula
    Pectoralis Minor
  147. Origin- undersurface of clavicle
    Attaches at junction of first rib and its cartilage
  148. Large muscle on the side of the rib cage wall
    Origin- upper eight ribs
    Insertion- Front of scapula
    serratus anterior
  149. 11 muscles that fill outer portions of the rib interspaces. Thin layer of muscle running adjacent to ribs. Links ribs to one another.
    External Intercostals
  150. 11 muscles that lie in inner portions of rib interspaces.
    Internal Intercostals
  151. Fan-shaped structure located on the inside, front wall of the rib cage
    Origin- midline on the inner surfaceof sternum