CD 373 Exam 2
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Lung Tissue Proper
- Divided into 5 lobes:
- -Right Lung: 3 lobes
- -Upper, middle, lower
- -Left Lung: 2 lobes
- -Upper and lower
Skeletal framework for Respiration
- Vertebral Column
- Rib Cage
- Shoulder Girdle
- Pelvic Girdle
- Yellowish coloring
- High % elastic fibers
- Flexible Tissue
- Found in ear, eppiglottis, and auditory canal
Function of vertebral column
- protect spinal cord
- support torso
- muscle attachment point
- joints for inter-vertebral motion
- absorbs shock from walking/sitting/running
allows nerve and vascualr passage
form gliding joints tetween vertebrae
Curved Bone in Vertebrae
Attachment to body
Allos great freedom of motion
- Small transverse processes
- Small corpus relative to other vertebrae
Supports weight of the skull
prevents injury to upper spinal cord by limiting pivoting
- Massive corpus
- No articulatory facets on transverse process and spinous process, since there are no ribs attached
- Spinous process directed horizontally
Facet for collar bone and first rib
Corpus of sternum
facets for remaining ribs
Forms synovial joints with ribs
- Includes an array of ligaments to help attach ribs
- 12 pairs
- Fall in inferior oblique orientation
- Ribs 1-10 Interface w. sternum via costal cartilage
- 11&12 are floaters- No sternal attachement
- Attached to sternum via costo-sternal joint
Limited range of motion
Gliding joint created between body of vertebrae and head of rib.
Gliding joint vreated between transverse process of vertebrae and shaft of rib
What changes the vertical dimension of the ribs?
Flattening of the dome shaped diaphragm
Bucket Handle Rib-Rotation
- Mediolateral lifting due to rotation of rib along the dorso-ventral axis
- -Area increases in mediolateral dimension due to raising of ribs
- -Provides greater available volume for respiration
Pump Handle Rib-Rotation
- Anterior end of ribs and sternum are elevated and move anteriorly with rotation axis about the head of the rib.
- -Less effective change in overall lung volume
What is the Pelvic Girdle Composed of?
- Origin-Manubrium and clavicle
- Insertion-Mastoid process
- Action- elevate sternum and clavicle, lifting the upper ribs
With the head stable, thesee elevate the 1st and 2nd ribs
- Origin- Medial half of the clavicle, sternum length
- Insertion- humerus
- Action- elevate sternum and ribs if the arm is stable, increase transverse (cross-section) dimension of rib cage.
- Deep to Pect. Major
- Origin- Anterior surfaces of ribs 3-5
- Insertion-coracoid process of scapula
- Action-depress shoulder and elevate ribs 3-5
- Origin- undersurface of clavicle
- Insertion- Junction of rib 1 to sternum
- Action- fixing clavicle will allow subclavius to elevate rib 1
- Origin- external surfaces of upper 9 rib laterally
- Insertion- Wraps around RC, inserts over the entire length of the deep surface of the scapula
- Action- elevation of lower 9 ribs, if scapula is fixated.
- Superficial, thick, broad, trapezoid-shaped muscle of upper back
- Origin-Cranial base, spinous process of cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae
- Insertion- scapular spine
- Action- Stabalize shoulder and indirectly the rib cage
- -"shrug" shoulders
- -Helps control head movement
Any respiratory function by these three muscles will depend on fixation of the shoulder and neck first.
- Large circumpennate muscle, divides thoracic from abdominal cavity
- -Dome shaped
- -Penetrated by esophogus, aorta, and inferior vena cava
- Origin- lower perimeter of ribs (7-11), xiphoid process of sternum
- Insertion- Central Tendon
- Action-Flattens, drive central tendon inferiorly, inhalation.
General Action of the Diaphragm
- Increase the volume of thorax and thus create inward airflows and negative pressure changes.
- -Inspiration action
- Superior attachement is nearer the vertebral end than the inferior attachment.
- Origin-Superficial inferior margin of ribs 1-11
- Insertion-Superficial superior margin of rib below
- Action- raise the ribs
Internal Intercostals Interchondrial (III)
- Lie deep to externals
- Origin-deep inferior margin of ribs 1-11 within the region of the costal cartilages
- Insertion-deep superior msrgin of rib below
- Action-Muscle exerts upward pull to raise the ribs
Slight elevation of posterior rib cage
Serratus Posterior Superior
- Origin- Spinous process
- Action- Elevate ribs 2-5
- Thin muscle located on the deep surface of the anterior thoracic wall.
- Origin- Deep surface of sternum
- Action- Lowering of costal cartilages 2-6
Serratus Posterior Inferior
- Attaches to inferior borders of the lowest four ribs just beyond their angles.
- Action- rib lowering to help expiration
Internal Intercostal Interosseous
- Deep to external intercostals
- Origion- Inferior margin of ribs 1-11
- Action- depress and lower ribs 1-11
- Veritcally oriented muscle in deep dorsal lumbar area between 12th rib and iliac crest of pelvis
- Action- Downward pull on 12th rib (exhalation) or more likely postural control or lower thorax and assisting in abdominal compression activities.
- Powerful broad muscle of lower back
- Action-If arm is stabilized, selective elevation of lower ribs. If lats contract as a complete unit, they compress posterior abdominal wall assisting espiration
- Deepest and thinnest of 3 lateral AB muscles, with fibers woursing around the lateral sides of the abdomen
- -Antagonist to diaphragm. Compress abdominal contents and sides inward
Internal Abdominal Oblique
Bilateral activation lowers ribs, compresses abd, rotates and flexes trunk
External Abdominal Oblique
- Thickest of 3 muscles of the lateral abdominal wall and most superficial
- Lowers ribs and antagonistic to diaphragm. Also compresses front and sides or abdom inward.
- Origin- Pubic Bone
- Depress rib cage and flexion of torso. Can also force abdom wall inward
Primary mucle for inhalation
Respiratory muscles most active during speech
- Diaphragm, External Intercostals, Internal Intercostals'
- III, Rectus Abdominis, Transverse External and Internal Obliques
What does the chesty wall consist of
- rib cage wall
- abdominal wall
- contents of abdomen
How are pulmonary apparatus subdivisions described?
- as lung volumes and capacities.
- Liters, ml, or cc (cubic cm)
What do lung capacities do?
- express the functional state of the system
- -may include 2 or more lung volumes
- -"functional combinations" of lung volumes
The volume of air inhaled and exhaled during any single inspiratory/expiratory cycle
TV of an adult male at rest (watching tv)
TV with light work (pacing the floor because UL is winning)
TV with heavy work (cheering and jumping because UK came back to beat UL)
What does TV stand for?
What does MV stand for
What is the MV per minute for an adult?
What is the TV events per minute for an adult
500-700 air cycle
Quantity of air which can be inhaled beyond that already inhaled in a tidal volume cycle
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
Quantity of air which can be exhaled after a quiet of passive exalation
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
Quantity of air that remains in the lungs and airways after a maximum exhalation
Residual Volume (RV)
Quantity of air that the lungs are capable of holding at the height of a maximum inhalation
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
Quantity of air tat can be exhaled after as deep an inhalation as possible
Vital Capacity (VC)
maximum volume of air that can be inhaled from resting expiratory level
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
quantity of air in the lungs and airway at the resting expiratory level
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
What does Natural Resting State mean, when referring to the lungs?
- Lung tissues have a natural tendancy to collapse and shrink
- Thoratic Tissues have a natural tendancy to expand and become larger
Lungs and thorax tissues exert a...
recoil force that is opposite in sign (direction) from each other
Resting position for the Chest Wall-Lungs is:
the point at which the force of the lungs to shrink is opposed and balanced equally by the force of the rib cage to expand.
What keeps the lungs stuck to the ribs?
What is plueral linkage?
What are the three essential components to keeping the lungs stuck to the rib cage?
- Pleural Linings
- Intra-pleural space
- Intra-pleural Fluid
Pressure within the intrepleural space is (negative/positive) due to opposite recoil tendancies of the tissues
Why is pressure within the intra-pleural place negative?
- Lung tissue shrinks
- Rib cage expands
- One tissue is trying to pull away from another which creates suction (neg. pressure)
Change in lung volumes will produce changes in...
what is the fuel driving our speech?
What does "Brownian Motion" say?
Air molecules tend to bounce around at random
- F= applied force
How are pressure, Applied force, and area related?
- Pressure is directly proportional to applied force
- Pressure is inversely related to Area
how do we describe air pressure int he vocal tract?
how far the lung pressures can displace a column of water or of Hg
What is speech air pressure measured in?
cmH2O or mmHG
Does pressure move objects?
No. Changes in pressure do.
What is Boyle's Law?
Equation that explians the relationship between pressure and volume.
What is the equation of Boyle's Law?
- p is pressure
- v is volume
- k is a constant
Pressure and Volume are...
What creates air flow?
What is directly related to those eleastic, rebound, and recoil forces that tissues naturally have
What are the three types of pressures?
What are the three types of airflow?
What are positive pressures associated with?
What are negative pressures associated with?
What are active forces?
What are passive forces?
- Natural Recoil
- -lung tissue
Passive forces in the pulmonary apparatus
Active forces in the pulmonary apparatus
Passive forces in the chest wall
active forces in the chest wall
passive forces in the rib cage wall
Active forces in the rib cage wall
Passive forces in the diaphragm
active forces in the diaphragm
passive forces in the abdominal wall
active forces in the abdominal wall
What does the shape of the chest wall tell us?
something about the mechanical advantages provided for different behaviors
Passively related pressures
Relaxation pressures are air pressures generated from
passive recoil and/or passive rebound forces of respiratory system tissues
When does the resting state of the lung-rib system settle?
35-38% of Vital Capacity
At rest, pressure produced is...
If you begin at lung volumes above 35-38% VC...
exhale is passive
If you begin at lung volumes below 35-38%...
inhale is passive
Lung volume is decreased due to...
passive elastic recoil forces generated by the rib cage recoil and relaxation of inspiratory muscles
Lung pressure increases to (less than/greater than) atmospheic prssure during quiet exhalation
air continues to exit the respiratory system as long as
What 3 things do you need for speech production?
- Power supply: lungs
- Sound source: vocal folds
- Valves/chambers: articulators and cavities
Air has a tendancy to move from regions of (low/high) pressure to regions of (low/high) pressure
Wat produces the kinetic energy to drive airflow into and out of the respiratory system?
Differences in regional pressures
What is the location of air intake in quiet breathing?
What is the location of air intake in speech breathing?
What is the ratio of time for inhalation vs exhalation for quiet breathing?
- 2 sec duration
What is the ratio of time for inhalation vs exhalation for speech breathing?
- (20 sec duration)
What is the volume of air for quiet breathing?
What it the volume of air for speech breathing?
Variable, depending on utterance length and loudness
What is the muscle activity of exhalation for quiet breathing
Passive- muscles of thorax and diaphragm relax
What is the muscle activity of exhalation for speech breathing?
Actice- Both thoracic and abdominal mucsle contract to control recoil of rib cage and diaphragm
%VC for life breathing
%VC for speech breathing
%VC for loud speech breathing
What influences volume of air needed
Loudness of speech
%VC for normal conversational speech
%VC for loud speech initiated at high lung volumes
%VC for soft speech initiated between
Respiratory muscles active during Inspiration
- External Intercostals
- Internal Intercostals Interchodrial
Respiratory muscles active during Expiration
- Internal Intercostals Interosseous
- Rectus Abdominis
Internal Intercostals Interosseous
primary muscle generating pulse-like variations in expiratory effort to alter lung pressure during speech
antagonistic to diaphragm, active during loud speech and vocalization
Match Passive/Active and Muscular/Nonmuscular
- Active- Muscular
- Passive- Non muscular
Broad, fan-shaped muscle positioned on the upper front wall of the rib cage
relatively large, thin muscle.
Origin: elevates ribs 2-5
Insertion: front of scapula
Origin- undersurface of clavicle
Attaches at junction of first rib and its cartilage
Large muscle on the side of the rib cage wall
Origin- upper eight ribs
Insertion- Front of scapula
11 muscles that fill outer portions of the rib interspaces. Thin layer of muscle running adjacent to ribs. Links ribs to one another.
11 muscles that lie in inner portions of rib interspaces.
Fan-shaped structure located on the inside, front wall of the rib cage
Origin- midline on the inner surfaceof sternum
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