A trait associated with a gene that is only carried by the male or female parent.
The study of the effect of drugs/medication on the mind and behavior
Define Behavioral Medicine
Field of research and practice that focuses on how people's thoughts and behavior affect their health and disease.
Define Behavioral Genetics
Refers to the study of the degree to which psychological traits, such as sociability, aggression, and mental abilities are inherited.
Elements of the Somatic Nervous System
Afferent Neurons - Carry information to the brain
Efferent Neurons - Carry information from the brain to the body
Aka Motor division, Carries info from various sense organs to of the body to the brain for processing. Including eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin, joints, tendons ect.
Controls voluntary movement of our body.
"Visual Cortex"Strongly associated with the processing of visual stimuli received from the eye
Involved in coordination of voluntary movements and fine motor control, some learning and memory. Its the first thing to "Get drunk"
Involved in hearing, balance, and some parasympathetic functioning.
Involved in breathing and reflexive activity
The Reticular Formation
Involved in arousal and alertness
Routes incoming sense stimuli to the appropriate parts of the brain and links the upper and lower part of the brain.
Underneath the thalamus. Involved in our motives and emotions. Also, plans a key role in regulation body temp, sleep, blood pressure and heart beat.
Involved in generation of language
Usually in the located in the left hemisphere
Located in frontal lobe
non-dedicated area of the brain to process information
Located in frontal lobe
regulates voluntary movement of the body
Located in parietal lobe
Involved in our experience of being touched
Located in Temporal Lobe
Involved in comprehension of language
Usually located in left hemisphere
Part of the forebrain
Contains amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate cortex
implicated in emotionality
Involved in memory of emotions associated with events
Part of the Limbic System
Involved with encoding new memories of events
Part of the limbic system
Implicated in cognitive processing of emotion
Part of the limbic system
Cell body of the neuron
Located in the soma
Serve as receptor sites for incoming information
The "firing"of a neuron begins here
Hollow tube extends from soma to terminal branches
Has semi-permeable membrane
Has iron gates
Branches that permit communication with many other neurons
Fatty substance coating some neurons
May not develop until after birth
Increases the speed of transmission down the neuron
Nodes of Ranvier
Ion gates located here to permit depolarization to occur
Small pouches in terminal buds
Attach to cell wall during synaptic transmission
Release neurotransmitters into synaptic gap
Chemical the conveys information from one neuron to the next
How A Neuron Works
Stimulation of the dendrites sends a graded potential towards the axon hillock
If reaches the absolute threshold the neuron "fires"
Once fired the neuron depolarizes and open the ion gates
The graded potential "fires" down the neuron towards the terminal branches
After the ion gates close an exchange between potassium (in) and sodium (out) is made
Once the electric charge reaches the terminal buds its causes the vesicles to attach to the wall and releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap
The neurotransmitter stimulate the next neuron then is released back where it is either reabsorbed, attacked and broken down or reattach
Where is the language center for most people?
The temporal lobe in the Wernicke's area
What is saltatory conduction?
When axons have myelin sheathing is helps the Action potential to jump node to node. "To leap"
What is reuptake?
Is when a neurotransmitter is reabsorbed by the terminal bud it was released from
What is a MRI?
Magnetic resonance imaging; Scans using radio waves to get a detailed map of the brains and what parts o the brain is being utilized.
What is aphasia
It is a language disorder that results in damage to the brain
What is brain plasticity?
The ability for nerves to change through new experiences
What is the pituitary gland?
"master gland" as it controls hormone functions such as our temperature, thyroid activity, growth during childhood, urine production, testosterone production in males and ovulation and estrogen production in females ect
Gland below the voice box that regulates metabolism
Two glands on the kidneys that are involved in physical and emotional arousal
What neurotransmitter is implicated with schizophrenia?
What neurotransmitter is associated with Alzheimer's?
Lack of acetylcholine
Primary vs Secondary motives
Primary motives - motives for things that are necessary for survival such as food water and warmth.
Secondary motives - achievement, acceptance ect
regulates energy intake and output; acts on the receptors of the hypothalamus that inhibits appetite
Causes blood vessels to constrict, and drives blood pressure up