Jazz Test 2
Card Set Information
Jazz Test 2
What style period is Paul Whitman associated with?
His career pans between early jazz and swing
Where was Paul Whiteman based?
Early big band experiements are associated with whom?
How many players were in Paul Whiteman experiment with in his big band?
Paul whiteman had an eclectic style that straddled the line between_____.
classical and jazz
What is Rhapsody in Blue?
a clarinet concerto written in a "jazzy" style
Paul Whiteman commissioned Gershwin to write it.
Paul Whiteman hired various_____
Paul Whitman focused on ____ and ____ and dubbed himself ____.
PR and Commercial appeal
"the King of Jazz"
Who dubbed himself "the king of jazz"?
Fletcher Henderson has experience as____
a Tin Pan Alley pianist, and he arranged his own charts
What style period is Fletcher Henderson associated with?
Who was one of the first significant jazz arrangers?
Where was Fletcher Henderson active?
What is fletcher henderson known for?
utilizing the best soloists
What soloists did fletcher henderson use?
: Coleman Hawkins, Benny Carter, Lester Young
: Louis Armstrong, Roy Eldridge, Rex Stewart
Who perfected techniques of block voicing?
the melody is the top voice of a series of chords, and each note in a chord is assigned to a different instrument or combination of instruments.
What does block voicing produce?
a thicker sound than if the line were not harmonized
Fletcher Henderson is associated with what instrument?
Who made jazz music popular?
What famous soloists did Paul Whiteman utilize?
Frankie Trambauer (Tram)
Bix Biederbeck (Bix)
Who was fletcher henderson highly influenced by?
Who invented block voicing?
What musical instrument did Count Basie play, and who was he influenced by?
originally a stride pianist
count basie is associated with what style period?
The Basie Band is know for ____
relaxed style and simplicity---AKA the "Kansas City Style"
Where did Count Basie's band develop?
Whose band did Basie take over?
Bennie Moten's band after Moten's death
led the first rhythm section in jazz history that consistently swung in a smooth, relaxed way
Who is Taxi War Dance by?
Count Basie Big Band
Count Basie arrangements:
riff/head arrangments were constructed by the band; not all composed arrangements
Who was the most creative and prolific composer-arranger in jazz hisotry
Who led the most stable and longest lived big band?
What instrument did duke ellington play?
stride piano background, following James P. Johnson
Who wrote more than 2000 compositions as well as many arrangments and rearrangements for them?
Duke Ellington had a highly experimental compositional style:
utilized the individualistic strengths of his band members as a way to structure compositions
What core musicians did Duke Ellington retain?
Johnny Hodges, Cootie Williams, Harry Carney, Billy Strayhorn,
What songs did Duke Ellington write?
Where was Duke Ellington from ?
One of Ellington's greatest skills as an arranger was that of ....
capitalizing on the uniquely personal sounds of individual players
Where was Benny Goodman based?
Who was Benny Goodman influenced by?
Austin High Gang---especially Frank Teschemacher
What instrument did Benny Goodman play?
Clarinet; and he was star soloist in his band
Who was named the "king of swing"?
What band was by far the most popular of all swing bands?
Who were some notable alumni of Benny Goodman's band?
Charlie Christian (guitar)
Lionel Hampton (vibes)
Benny Goodman hired outside arrangers such as?
What did Benny Goodman's hiring of outside arrangers result in?
popularization and commercialization of black music
Who led first interacial group in jazz history (1936)?
Who was in Benny Goodman's interracial group?
How was an interracial jazz group possible?
only possible due to commercial success (avoided touring in Jim Crow South)
What happened 10 years before Jackie Robinson, and 20 before civil rights movement?
Benny Goodman led 1st interracial group in jazz history
influenced almost every jazz musician who played clarinet after him?
What music did Benny Goodman record?
"Seven Come Eleven"
What was the International Sweethearts of Rhythm?
a popular all-female band in the 1940s
What style period is the international sweethears of rhythm associated with?
Duke Ellington is associated with what style period?
Benny Goodman is associated with what style period?
How did the international sweethearts of rhythm begin?
as a school fundraising venture, later supported by a wealthy Virginian
This band featured members of mixed races--white, black, puerto rican, and asian.
The international sweethearts of rhythm
The international sweethearts of rhythm had what kind of leaders, arranger?
Where did the international sweethearts of rhythm tour?
nationally; unlike goodman, they toured the south (avoided jim crow laws by living in the bus)
At the height of civilian bandleading career, he voluntarily joined the military and convinced the army to place him "in charge of a modernized Army band."
Glenn Miller is associated with what style period?
Stan Kenton is associated with what style period?
associated with progressive jazz?
Changed big band jazz into an art-form (music not for dancing)
Wagner is to Opera as ____ is to Jazz
What is progressive jazz?
big band arranging style
thick voicings, heavy brass, harmonic and rhythmic complexity
Who else, besides Stan Kenton, changed big band jazz into an art-form?
: Jazz suites, Carnegie Hall
Goodman's commissions by classical composers (Copland, Bartok, Hindemith)
Who are the 3 jazz divas and what style period are they associated with?
Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, Sarah Vaughn
known as "Lady Day"
This jazz diva:
no improvisation (no scatting)
What is billie holiday remembered as?
an innovator for her ability to express emotion?
Billie holiday was a jazz singer. Her rpertoire includes?
mostly popular and show tunes
borrowing from jazz horn players, not previous blues singers
What bands did billie holiday sing in?
Basie, Goodman, small group with Lester Young
This Jazz Diva had:
highly technical ability
The first major soloist primarily as a scat singer
had massive success outside of jazz-as a popular tune singer?
What band did Ella Fitzgerald front?
Chick Webb Band
This Jazz diva:
primarily a singer, rarely a scat soloist
Sarah Vaughn's career begins in mid 1940s with---
pianist Earl Hines' band (alonside male vocalist Billy Eckstine)
Sarah Vaughn is primarily known for her ability to?
alter pitch, tone, and rhythms while singing melodies
Coleman Hawkins is associated with what style period?
What instrument did Coleman hawkins play?
tenor sax; henderson band; smallgroup
this man is generally considered to be the first important jazz tenor saxophonist
Lester Young is associated with what style period?
What instrument did lester young play?
Basie's most notable soloist during the 1930s and 40s was?
"father of the tenor sax"
after him tenor sax was part of jazz band
What music did coleman hawkins record?
Body and soul
-focused on improv from beginning to end
In "Body and Soul," 1st time in jazz history, where ___
tune is never really given, focused on improv
Lester young recorded what music?
taxi war dance
How do lester young and coleman hawkins sounds differ?
Young offered a clear alternative to the heavy tone, fast vibrato, and complicated style of Hawkins.
: light and simplified
: lots of arpeggios and heavy vibrato
This tenor saxophonist had a small group with Billie Holiday?
Art Tatum is associated with what style period?
considered the greatest stride pianist
Errol Garner is associated with what style period?
What instrument is errol garner associated with?
small group pianist
Who did Art Tatum influence?
Bud Powell and Lennie Tristano
mary lou williams is associated with what style period?
mary lou williams playes what instrument?
piano (various styles)/arranger
the first virtuoso on the vibes
lionel hampton is associated with what style period?
Lionel hampton played what instrument?
Charlie Christian is associated with what style period?
What instrument did Charlie Christian play?
single string soloing technique, later electric
Who did Charlie Christian influence?
whose band was christian in?
benny goodman's band
2nd black member
Django Reinhardt and Stephane Grappelli are associated with what style period?
Django Reinhardt played what instrument?
stephane grappelli played what instrument?
After reinhardt lost 2 of his fingers how did he adapt?
he plaed solo single-string
What band did django reinhardt and stephane grappelli have?
quintette du hot club de france (violin, bass, 3 guitars)
What is the primary function of Big Bands?
music for dancing
Jazz groups grew larger during the 1920s adding more horns until bands were grouped into 3 main sections:
saxophones, brass, and rhythm
Horn sections contain:
2 or more horns
By the mid-late 1940s, the most big bands had relatively standardized horn sections:
5,4,4 (saxes, trumpets, trombones)
What did the standard horn section consist of?
: AKA the 'reed section' or woodwind section'. 2 altos, 2 tenors, 1 bari
What did the swing era rhythm section consist of?
piano, guitar, string bass, drums
With more musicians in a band, most bands began to rely on?
Using arrangements, bands could have?
more complex musical ideas.
Ex. a melody harmonized by the whole band
Because of arrangements, musicians now need to be able to?
Despite arrangements, what is the primary features/draws in a big band?
during the swing era, jazz arranging becomes an art in its own right.
sometimes called "charts"
List 5 big band leaders
Where does the name "swing" come from?
the rhythmic swing pattern, used by all significant jazz musicians/bands by the late 1920s
_____ is replaced by focusing on a soloist against the backdrop of a large band
Solo improv innovated by _____.
b/w 1930-1950 this was the most popular style of music in the us.
The swing era is AKA _____.
the big band era
The swing era was primarily developed ___.
in harlem druing the Harlem Renaissance
Name 3 Swing era trumpet soloists
Roy Eldridge (Henderson)
Cootie Williams (Ellington)
Rex Stewart (various)
List 4 swing era sax soloists
Coleman Hawkins (tenor)
Lester Young (tenor)
Johnny Hodges (alto)
Benny Carter (alto)
List 2 swing era trombone soloists
Jack Teagarden (whiteman, bandleader)
Tommy Dorsey (Dorsey Bros Band)
What did the Basie rhythm section establish?
hard-grooving style and crisp group sound becomes the model for the hard-swinging rhythm section.
Who was part of the Basie Rhythm Section?
Walter Page-Walking Bass
Jo Jones-solidifies the ride pattern, omits the bass drum
Freddie Green-jazz rhythm guitar
What did Artie Shaw play?
Artie shaw followed in the footsteps of?
1st black jazz band to perform in Carnegie hall?
Duke Ellington Band
1st Jazz band to play in Carnegie Hall?
Benny Goodman Band
Ellingtons 1st jazz suite?
black, brown, and beige
1st long, extended piece of music written for jazz
Why did the Swing era decline?
WWII and 1942-44 Musician's strike
How did WWII affect the swing era?
nightclub and cabaret tax
rationing of resources (rubber, gas, metals)
drafting of musicians/bandleaders
Why do the musician's strike?
American Federation of Musicians strike against recording industry over royalties to composers.
What doesn't the musician strike affect?
live, concert, and radio performances
What is the time period for Swing?
What is the time period for Bebop?
What style period is Charlie Parker associated with?
What style period is Dizze Gillespie associated with?
What style period is Thelonious Monk associated with?
What style period is Max Roach associated with?
What Style period is kenny clarke associated with?
Unlike Swing, bebop formed as an ___
Where was bebop formed and by whom?
formed in jam sessions, by young jazz musicians tired of playing commercial dance music
What is bebop intended for?
listening, not dancing
_____ were among the first jazz musicians to view themselves as artists rather than entertainers.
Musical characteristics of bebop?
use of extended harmony
use of substitute chords
focus on improv, little emphasis on arrangement
In bebop, what doe melodies (or heads) act as?
an introduction/conclusion to a song, and the improvised solos make up the bulk of music
Bebop developed in late-night jazz jam sessions in ____.
bars and clubs, not dance halls
_____ was the prominent jam session in the late 1930s -early 1940s for talented soloists.
What did Minton's playhouse act as?
a laboratory for developing an experimental type of small group jazz, later named bebop.
Who were the leading bebop musicians?
Charlie Parker (alto sax)
Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet)
Thelonious Monk (piano
Kenny Clarke, Max Roach (drums)
Oscar Pettiford, Ray Brown (bass)
What instrument did Charlie Parker play?
What instrument did Dizzy Gillespie play?
What instrument did Thelonious Monk play?
What instrument did Kenny Clarke play?
What instrument did Max Roach play?
What is Charlie Parker's nickname and where is he from?
What is kansas city home to?
the bluesy, riff-style jazz bands
What did Charlie Parker develop?
a distincitive soloistic style, using complex melodic, harmonic, and rhythm
Who was Charlie Parker heavily influenced by?
Who was charlie parker's mentor?
Who was Dizzy Gellespie influenced by?
swing era soloist Roy Eldridge
What did Dizzy Gillespie develop?
a complex solo style while working in Cab Calloway's big band.
Who did Dizzy Gillespie act as a mentor to?
younger players of all instruments, skilled in teaching the new musical vocabulary
Besides bebop, what was Dizzy Gillespie instrumental in developing?
What is Afro-Cuban Jazz?
Jazz improv combined with traditional Afro-Cuban rhythms
Where was Thelonious Monk raised, who was he influenced by?
What did thelonious Monk develop?
a new harmonic language for jazz pianists
Where did Thelonious monk play?
in the house band at Minton's
What happened to many of Thelonious Monk's innovative compositions?
they became jazz standards (beyoung the 40s and 50s)
What is Monk's piano style?
known for dissonant harmonies, angular, melodies, and unusual rhythms
What did Dizzy Gillespie incorporate into bebop big bands?
Who is Woody Herman?
Swing bandleader who transformed style with the advent of bebop
What did Woody Herman write?
Why was a new type of drumming required in the bebop era?
because of the new soloistic styles developed by Parker/Gillespie
Following in the style of Jo Jones from the Count Basie Band, drummers kept time ____
only on the cymbals
What was the snare/bass drum used?
primarily to accent phrases with the soloist
Who were the primary innovators of the bebop drumming?
Kenny Clarke and Max Roach
What is Kenny Clarke credited with?
inventing the modern swing pattern; while maintaining a swing groove, developing total limb independence to comp a soloist
___ continued Clarke's style
What did Max Roach develop?
the drum as a soloistic instrument, taking longer drum solos
The first major jazz pianist to break away from the stride style?
The first significan bass soloist?
What did Oscar Pettiford develop?
solos in the same manner of bebop horn players Parker and Gillespie
Who were the Bebop Bassists?
Bebop bassists continued with the walking bass, while incorporating ____.
the new, more complex harmonies in their bass lines
What song was composed by Thelonious Monk?
What song was recorded by Dizzy Gillespie?
Things to Come
What song was recorded by Charlie Parker?
What is Dropping Bombs?
When the drummer uses the kick drum to fill in the spaces for a soloist