ADT Exam 1

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  1. Drugs absorbed into pulmonary circulation
    • avoid first pass
    • could be metabolized by enzymes in the respiratory tract
  2. Aerosols are defined as
    colloidal systems of very finely subdivided liquid or solid particles dispered in and surrounded by gas
  3. 3 classes of aerosol products
    • space sprays
    • surface coating
    • aerated sprays
  4. Disperse active ingredients as a finely divided spray with the particle no longer than 50 micrometer in diameter
    space spray
  5. disperse larger particles generally produce a wet or course spray
    • surface coating
    • deposited in upper airway
  6. dispered medication foams, vaginal foams and shaving cream
    aerated sprays
  7. Advantages of aerosol dosage form
    • minimum contamination
    • maximum stability
    • reduces irritation (cooling effect)
    • easy to control form, particle size and dose
    • clean process
  8. Advantages of therapeutic aerosols
    • drug acts very rapidly
    • local high concentrations for higher activity
    • reduced systemic side effects
    • lower doses needed than if taken PO or IV
  9. Aerodynamic diameter
    diameter x sq. root of density
  10. Aerodynamic diameter >2 micrometer
    • deposits in oropharynx
    • does not reach peripheral lung
  11. Ideal size for a therapeutic aerosol to penetrate into the tracheo-bronchial tree and smaller airways
    5 micrometer
  12. major constituents of an aerosol
    • active ingredient
    • antioxidants
    • surface active agent
    • solvent
    • propellant
  13. fluorinated hydrocarbon
    • propellant
    • liquified gas mixture
  14. non-liquified gas
    • carbon dioxide
    • nitrogen
    • nitrous oxide
  15. Advantages of nitrogen as propellant
    • insolube in the product concentrate
    • oderless and tasteless gas
  16. Only propellant suitable for pharmaceutical use
  17. Pressure of an aerosol
    • critical to performance
    • controlled by type, amount and nature of propellant
  18. Space spray % propellant
  19. surface spray % propellant
  20. Aerated spray % propellant
  21. Three types of devices that are commonly used
    • metered dose inhaler
    • nebulizer
    • dry powder inhaler
  22. AIR particles
    • low density
    • porous structure
    • 5-30 mcm diameter
    • aerodynamic diameter of 1-5 mcm
  23. sustained release
    lipid coating the particles
  24. rapid release
    sugar or water soluble particles
  25. Advantages of AIR
    • large size and small aerodynamic size
    • require less power for dispersion
    • up to 50mg of powder can be administered with each inhalation
    • low cohesion between particles
    • high % of particles deposited in deep lung tissue
    • breath activated inhaler
Card Set
ADT Exam 1
Pulmonary Drug Delivery
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