Unit 8 Electrolyte Imbalance

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Unit 8 Electrolyte Imbalance
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2011-10-13 00:49:03
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Unit Electrolyte Imbalance
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Unit 8 Electrolyte Imbalance
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  1. Sodium
    Na+
  2. (135-145 mEq/L)
    Sodium
  3. Sodium deficit in ECF
    Hyponatremia
  4. Caused by loss of sodium or gain of water; vomiting, diarrhea, fistual formation, sweating, diuretics
    hyponatremia
  5. confusion, hypotension, edema, muscle cramps, weakness, dry skin and seizures are all signs of
    hyponatremia
  6. excess sodium in ECF
    Hypernatremia
  7. Caused by excess water loss or excess sodium
    Hypernatremia
  8. Fluid deprivation (not being able to drink), lack of fluid consumption, diarrheat, hyperventilation, and burns
    hypernatremia
  9. Restlessness, weakness, disorientation, delusion, and hallucinations are all signs of
    hypernatremia
  10. (3.5-5 mEq/L)
    Potassium
  11. K
    Potassium
  12. Potassium deficit in ECF; <3.5 mEq/L
    Hypokalemia
  13. Lost through vomiting, gastric suction, diarrhea,
    diuretics
    Hypokalemia
  14. Muscle weakness, leg cramps, fatigue, paresthesias,
    dysrhythmias
    Hypokalemia
  15. Excess of potassium in ECF; >5.0 mEq/L
    Hyperkalemia
  16. Renal failure, medications- KCL, potassium-sparing
    diuretics
    Hyperkalemia
  17. Skeletal muscle weakness, paralysis, cardiac arrest
    Hyperkalemia
  18. Occurs less frequently than hypokalemia, but more
    dangerous
    Hyperkalemia
  19. Ca
    Calcium
  20. (8.9-10.1 mg/dL)
    Calcium
  21. Calcium deficit in ECF
    Hypocalcemia
  22. Inadequate calcium intake, impaired calcium absorption, excessive calcium loss
    Hypocalcemia
  23. Numbness and tingling of fingers, mouth, or feet,
    seizures, tetany- muscle cramps & spasms; Serum calcium < 8.9mg/dL
    Hypocalcemia
  24. Excess of calcium in ECF
    Hypercalcemia
  25. Cancer and hyperparathyroidism; Serum calcium > 10.1 mg/dL
    Hypercalcemia
  26. N/V/C (constipation), bone pain, excessive urination, thirst,
    confusion, lethargy, slurred speech, cardiac arrest
    Hypercalcemia
  27. (1.5-2.5 mEq/L)
    Magnesium
  28. Magnesium deficit in ECF; <1.5 mEq/L
    Hypomagnesemia
  29. NG suctioning, diarrhea, ETOH withdrawal, tube feedings, sepsis, burns
    Hypomagnesemia
  30. Muscle weakness, tremors, tetany, seizures, mental
    status changes, heart block, hyperactive DTR, respiratory paralysis
    Hypomagnesemia
  31. Magnesium excess in ECF; > 2.5 mEq/L
    Hypermagnesemia
  32. Renal failure, excessive mag intake (antacids/laxatives)
    Hypermagnesemia
  33. N/V, weakness, flushing, lethargy, loss of DTR’s,
    respiratory depression, coma, cardiac arrest
    Hypermagnesemia
  34. (2.5-4.5 mg/dL or 1.8-2.6 mEq/L)
    Phosphate
  35. P
    Phosphate
  36. Mg
    Magnesium
  37. Phosphate deficit in ECF; < 2.5 mg/dL OR < 1.8 mEq/L
    Hypophosphatemia
  38. Alcohol withdrawal, DKA, hyperventilation, diuretics
    Hypophosphatemia
  39. Irritability, fatigue, weakness, paresthesias, confusion, seizures, coma
    Hypophosphatemia
  40. Excess phosphate in ECF; >4.5 mg/dL OR >2.6 mEq/L
    Hyperphosphatemia
  41. Impaired kidney excretion, hypoparathyroidism
    Hyperphosphatemia
  42. Tetany, anorexia, nausea, muscle weakness, tachycardia
    Hyperphosphatemia
  43. Cl
    Chloride
  44. (96-106 mEq/L)
    Chloride
  45. Deficit of chloride in ECF; < 96 mEq/L
    Hypochloremia
  46. Severe V/D, drainage of gastric fluid, diuretics, burns
    Hypochloremia
  47. Hyperexcitability of muscles, tetany, hyperactive DTR’s, weakness, muscle cramps
    Hypochloremia
  48. Excess chloride in ECF; >106 mEq/L
    Hyperchloremia
  49. Head trauma, increased perspiration
    Hyperchloremia
  50. Tachypnea, weakness, lethargy, diminished cognitive
    ability, HTN, decreased cardiac output, dysrhythmias, coma
    Hyperchloremia

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