MT#3 Ch. 8

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gadgetJC
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MT#3 Ch. 8
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2011-10-16 13:53:42
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Orthopedics Skeletal system
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Bones
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  1. Appendicular skeleton
    bones of the shoulders, upper extremities, hips, and lower extremeties
  2. Axial skeleton
    bones of the head, chest and back
  3. bones
    the 206 individual pieces of the skeleton
  4. osseous tissue
    another name for bones
  5. osteal
    adjective that means bony
  6. skeletal system
    body system that consists of all the bones, ligaments, and joints in the body
  7. skeletomuscular system
    combined system of bones and muscles
  8. function of bone
    provide support for the muscles
  9. function of muscle
    enable the bones to move
  10. musculoskeletal system
    another name for the skeletomuscular system
  11. skeleton
    bony framework of the body that consists of all the bones
  12. coronal suture
    immoveable suture between the frontal bone and the parietal bones of the cranium
  13. cranium
    domelike bone at the top of the head that contains teh cranial cavity and the brain and other structures
  14. ethmoid bone
    bone that forms the posterior nasal septum and the medial walls of the eye sockets. contains many tiny hollow areas that are the ______ sinus
  15. fontanel
    soft spot on a baby's head where the cranial sutures are still open and there is only fibrous connective tissue
  16. foramen
    a hole in bone

    one in each vertebrae where the spinal cord passes through
  17. foramen magnum
    largest foramen in the body, through which the spinal cord passes to join with the brain
  18. foramina
    small holes in bones where blood vessels go through to the bone marrow
  19. frontal bone
    bone that forms the forehead and front of the cranium and ends at the coronal suture. contains the _________sinus
  20. hyoid bone
    U-shaped bone inthe anterior neck that anchors the muscles of the tongue and larynx
  21. lacrimal bones
    facial bones within the eye socket. Small, flat bones near the lacrimal glands, which produce tears
  22. mandible
    facial bone that forms the lower jawa nd contains the roots of the lower teeth. the only moveable bone in the skull and forms a joint just in front of the ear with teh temporal bone (temporomandibular joint)
  23. maxillary bones
    facial bones that form the immoveable upper jaw, the inferior edges of the eye socks, and the anterior part of the hard palate. they support the nose and lips and contain the roots of the upper teeth and the maxillary sinuses.
  24. maxilla
    the two fused maxillary bones
  25. nasal bones
    facial bones that form the bridge of the nose and the root of the nasal cavity
  26. occipital bone
    bone that forms the posterior base of the cranium. contains the foramen magnum
  27. ossicles
    three tiny bones in the middle ear that function in the process of hearing.

    also known as the ossicular chain
  28. palantine bones
    facial bones that are small and flat and form the posterior hard palate
  29. parietal bones
    bones that form the upper sides and upper back of the cranium. join at the sagittal suture
  30. sagittal suture
    immoveable suture between teh two parietal bones on the right and left sides of the cranium
  31. skull
    bony structure of the head that consists of the cranium and facial bones
  32. sphenoid bone
    large, irregular bone that forms the central base of the cranium and the postrior walls of the eye sockets. contains the ____________ sinuses. A bony cup in this bone holds the pituitary gland.
  33. Temporal bones
    bones that form the lower sides of the cranium and contain teh openings for the external ear canals.
  34. Mastoid process
    body landmark behind the ears on the temporal bone
  35. styloid process
    pointed bony landmark on the temporal lobe, the site of attachment for tendons to the muscles of the tongue and pharynx and for ligaments to teh hyoid bone.
  36. vomer
    facial bone that forms the inferior part of the nasal septum and
  37. zygoma
    facial bone that forms the lateral edge of th eye socket and the cheek bone
  38. nas/o
    nose (combining form)
  39. occipit/o
    occiput (back of the head) (combining form)
  40. palat/o
    palate (combining form)
  41. pariet/o
    wall of a cavity (combining form)
  42. sagitt/o
    going from front to back (combining form)
  43. sphen/o
    wedge shape (combining form)
  44. tempor/o
    temple (side of the head) (combining form)
  45. mast/o
    breast; mastoid process (combining form)
  46. styl/o
    stake (combining form)
  47. costal cartilage
    firm but flexible segments of connective tissue that join the ribs to the sternum at the costochondral joint.
  48. costochondral joint
    where teh costal cartilage meets the ribs
  49. ribs
    12 pairs of bones that form the sides of the thorax. Classified as true, false and floating.
  50. sternum (breast bone)
    Vertical bone of the anterior thorax to which the clavicle and ribs are attached.
  51. manubrium
    triangular-shaped superior part of the sternum
  52. xiphoid process
    inferior pointed tip of the sternum
  53. thorax (rib cage)
    bony cage of the chest that contains the thoracic cavity with the heart, lungs and other structures
  54. thoracic cavity
    cavity in the thorax/rib cage that contains the heart, lungs and other structures
  55. cost/o
    rib (combining form)
  56. chondr/o
    cartilagin/o
    cartilage (combining form - 2)
  57. stern/o
    sternum (breast bone) (combining form)
  58. ziph/o
    sword (combining form)
  59. thorac/o
    thorax (chest) (combining form)
  60. cervical vertebrae
    Vertebrae C1 - C7 of the spinal column in the neck.
  61. C1
    vertebra known as the ATLAS
  62. C2
    vertebra known as the AXIS
  63. coccyx
    group of several small, fused vertebrae inferior to the sacrum (tail bone).
  64. intervertebral disk
    circular disk between two vertebrae. Consists of an outer wall of fibrocartilage and an inner gelatinous substance, the nucleus pulposus, that acts as a cushion.
  65. lumbar vertebrae
    Vertebrae L1 - L5 of the spinal column in the lower back
  66. sacrum
    group of 5 fused vertebrae inferior to teh lumbar vertebrae
  67. spine/spinal column/vertebral column/backbone
    bony vertical column of vertebrae (4 terms)
  68. 5 regions of the spinal column
    • cervical vertebrae (7)
    • thoracic vertebrae (12)
    • lumbar vertebrae (5)
    • sacrum (5 fused)
    • coccyx (several small fused)
  69. thoracic vertebrae
    Vertebrae T1 - T12 of the spinal column in the area of the chest
  70. vertebrae
    bony structure in the spine
  71. parts of a vertebra (4)
    • vertebral body (flat circular area)
    • spinous process (bony projection along the midback)
    • 2 transverse processes (bony projections to the side)
    • foramen (hole where the spinal cord passes through)
  72. spinous process
    bony projection along the midback of a vertebra
  73. transverse process
    bony projection to the side of a vertebra
  74. foramen
    hole in a vertebra where the spinal cord passes through
  75. cervic/o
    neck; cervix (combining form)
  76. coccyg/o
    coccyx (tail bone) (combining form)
  77. vertebr/o
    spondyl/o
    vertebra (combining form - 2)
  78. lumb/o
    lower back; area between the ribs and pelvis (combining form)
  79. sacr/o
    sacrum (combining form)
  80. spin/o
    spine; backbone (combining form)
  81. acromion
    flat, bony projection of the scapula where it connects to the clavicle
  82. clavicle (collar bone)
    horizontal rodlike bone along each shoulder.

    joins with the manubrium of the sternum and the acromion of the scapula.
  83. glenoid fossa
    shallow depression in the scapula where the head of the humerus joins the scapula to make the shoulder joint
  84. scapula (shoulder blade)
    triangular-shaped bone on each side of the upper back. contains the acromion.
  85. carpal bones
    8 small bones of the wrist joint
  86. humerus
    long bone of the upper arm. the head fits into the glenoid fossa of the scapula to make the shoulder joint
  87. metacarpal bones
    5 long bones of the hand, one corresponding to each finger. Distal to the wrist bones.
  88. olecranon
    large, square, bony projection on the proximal ulna that forms the point of the elbow
  89. clavicul/o
    clavicle (collar bone) (combining form)
  90. glen/o
    socket of a joint (combining form)
  91. scapul/o
    scapula (shoulder blade) (combining form)
  92. carp/o
    wrist (combining form)
  93. humer/o
    humerus (upper arm bone) (combining form)
  94. carp/o
    wrist (combining form)
  95. phalanx
    one of the individual bones of a finger (digit) or toe (ray)
  96. digit
    finger
  97. ray
    toe
  98. radius
    forearm bone located along the thumb side of the lower arm
  99. ulna
    forearm bone located along the little finger side of the lower arm
  100. acetabulum
    cup-shaped deep socket in the hip bone that is formed by the ilium and the pubic bone.

    where the head of the femur fits to make the hip joint.
  101. ilium
    most superior hip bone.

    has a broad, flaring crest, and joins the sacrum posteriorly.

    contains the acetabulum.
  102. ischium
    most inferior hip bone. one of the "seat bones"
  103. pelvis
    hip bones + sacrum + coccyx
  104. pubis
    small bridgelike bone that is the most anterior hip bone.
  105. pubic symphysis
    nearly immobile joint between the two pubic bones
  106. calcaneus
    largest of the ankle bones (heel bone)
  107. femur
    long bone of the upper leg. its head fits into the acetabulum to make the hip joint.
  108. fibula
    small of the two bones in the lower leg, located on the little toe side.
  109. fibular, peroneal
    adjective meaning fibula (2)
  110. hallux
    the great toe
  111. malleolus
    bony projection of the distal tibia or the fibula. often mistakenly called the ankle bones.
  112. medial malleolus
    body projection of the distal tibia
  113. lateral malleolus
    bony projection of the fibula
  114. metatarsal bones
    5 long bones of the midfoot, one corresponding to each toe. Distal to the ankle bones
  115. patella
    thick, round bone anterior to the knee joint
  116. tarsal bones
    7 bones of the ankle joint.
  117. tarsus
    first tarsal bone in the ankle joint
  118. tibia (shin bone)
    larger of the two bones of the lower leg. located on the great toe side of the lower leg.
  119. femor/o
    femur (thigh bone) (combining form)
  120. fibul/o
    perone/o
    fibula (lower leg bone) (combining form - 2)
  121. tars/o
    ankle (combining form)
  122. patell/o
    patella (knee cap) (combining form)
  123. tibi/o
    tibia (shin bone) (combining form)
  124. articular cartilage
    cartilage that covers the bone ends in a synovial joint
  125. joint (articulation)
    area where two bones come together
  126. 3 types of joints
    suture, symphysis and synovial
  127. ligament
    fibrous bands that hold two bone ends together in a synovial joint
  128. meniscus
    crescent-shaped cartilage pad found in some synovial joints such as the knee
  129. suture joint
    immovable joint between two cranial bones. contains no cartilage.
  130. symphysis joint
    slightly moveable joint between two pubic ones (the pubic symphysis) or between the vertebrae.

    contains a fibrocartilage pad or a disk
  131. synovial joint
    a fully moveable joint enclosed in a joint capsed lined with a synovial membran that produces synovial fluid

    2 types - hinge and ball and socket
  132. cancellous bone
    spongy bone in the epiphyses of long bones. spaces are filled with red bone marow that makes blood cells.

    also found in skull, clavicles, sternum, irbs, vertebrae and hip bones
  133. cortical bone
    dense, compact, weightbaring bone along the diaphysis or shaft of a long bone
  134. diaphysis
    straight shaft of a long bone
  135. epiphysis
    one of the two widened ends of a long bone. contains the plate where bone growth take place
  136. epiphysial plate
    where bone growth takes place
  137. medullary cavity
    cavity within the shaft (diaphysis) of a long bone.

    contains yellow bone marrow (fatty tissue)
  138. ossification
    process by which cartilage is changed into bone from infancy through adolescence
  139. osteoblast
    bone cell that forms new bone or rebuilds bone
  140. osteoclast
    bone cell that breaks down old or damaged areas of bone
  141. osteocyte
    bone cell that maintains and monitors the mineral content (calcium, phosphorus) of bone
  142. periosteum
    thick, fibrous membrane that covers the outer surface of a bone
  143. articul/o
    arthr/o
    joint (combining form - 2)
  144. cartilagin/o
    cartilage (combining form)
  145. ligament/o
    ligament (combining form)
  146. synovi/o
    synovium (membrane) (combining form)
  147. cancell/o
    lattice structure (combining form)
  148. cortic/o
    cortex (outer region) (combining form)
  149. diaphys/o
    shaft of a bone (combining form)
  150. epiphys/o
    growth at the end of a long bone (combining form)
  151. medull/o
    medulla (inner region) (combining form)
  152. ossificat/o
    changing into bone (combining form)
  153. oste/o
    bone (combining form)
  154. avascular necrosis
    death of cells in the epiphysis of a long bone, often the femur.

    causes: injury, fracture, or dislocation that damages nearby blood vessels or by a blood clot that interrupts the blood supply to the bone

    treatment: surgery to remove the dead bone, then a bone graft. for large areas, joint replacement surgery is done.
  155. bone tumor (3 types)
    • osteoma
    • osteosarcoma/osteogenic sarcoma
    • Ewing's sarcoma
  156. osteoma
    benign tumor of the bone
  157. osteosarcoma/osetogenic sarcoma
    malignant bone tumor in which osteoblats multiple uncontrollably
  158. Ewing's sarcoma
    malignant bone tumor that occurs mainly in young men
  159. treatment for a bone tumor
    surgical excision of tumor or amputation of limb followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy
  160. chondroma
    beign tumor of the cartilage

    treatment: exision if large
  161. chondromalacia patellae
    abnormal softening of the patella b/c of thinning and uneven wear. the thigh muscle pullsthe patella in a crooked path that wears away the underside of the bone.

    treatment: strenthening of the thigh muscle to correct the direction of its contraction
  162. fracture
    broken bone due to an accident, injury or disease process, classified by how the bone breaks

    treatment: closed reduction and maipulation to align the fracture pieces, application of a cast

    surgery: open reduction an dinternal fixation using wires, pins, screws or plates
  163. stress fracture
    fracture caused by force or torsion during an accident or spors activity
  164. pathologic fracture
    fracture caused by a disease process such as asteoporosis, bone cancer or metastases to the bone
  165. malalignment (malunion)
    seen in fractures that are allowed to heal without treatment
  166. closed fracture
    any fracture in which the bone does not break through the overlying skin
  167. open fracture (compound fracture)
    any fracture in which the bone breaks through the overlying skin
  168. nondisplaced fracture
    broken bone ends remain in their normal anatomical position
  169. displaced fracture
    broken bone ends are pulled out of the normal anatomical alignment
  170. colles' fracture
    distal radius is broken by falling onto an outstretched hand
  171. comminuted fracture
    bone is crushed into several pieces
  172. compression fracture
    verebrae area compressed together when a person falls onto the buttocks or when a vertebra collapses in on itself because of diease
  173. depressed fracture
    cranium is fractured inward toward the brain
  174. greenstick fracture
    bone is broken only on one side. occurs in chilren b/c part of the bone is still flexibel cartilage
  175. hairline fracture
    very thin fracture line with the bone pieces still together. difficult to detect except on an x-ray
  176. oblique fracture
    bone is broken on an oblique angle
  177. spiral fracture
    bone is broken in a spiral because of a twisting force
  178. transverse fracture
    bone is broken in a transverse plane perpendicular to its long axis
  179. osteomalacia
    abnormal softening of bone due to a deficiency of vitamin D or inadequate expose to the sun. in children, this causes rickets with bone pain and fractures.

    treatment: vitamin D supplements, sun exposure
  180. osteomyelitis
    infection in the bone and bone marrow caused by bacteria entering the bone following an open fracture, crush injury, or surgical procedure.

    treatment: antibiotic drugs
  181. osteoporosis
    abnormal thinning of the bone structure

    vertebral column decreases in height, the patient becomes shorter, and there is an abnormal curvature of the upper back and shoulders (dowager's hump). can also cause a spontaneous fracture of the hip or femur.

    occurs in postmenopausal women and older men. a lack of dietary calcium an da lack of exercise contribute to the process.

    treatment: bone density test for diagnosis; drugs that decrease the rate of bone resorption or drugs that activate estradiol receptors, and calcium supplements
  182. vascul/o
    blood vessel (combining form)
  183. sarc/o
    connective tissue (combining form)
  184. gen/o
    arising from; produced by (combining from)
  185. malac/o
    softening (combining form)
  186. fract/o
    break up (combining form)
  187. path/o
    disease; suffering (combining form)
  188. log/oh
    word; the study of (combining form)
  189. align/o
    arranged in a straight line (combining form)
  190. comminut/o
    break into small pieces (combining form)
  191. compress/o
    press together (combining form)
  192. depress/o
    press down (combining form)
  193. vers/o
    to travel/turn (combining form)
  194. myel/o
    bone marrow; spinal cord; myelin (combining form)
  195. por/o
    small openings; pores (combining form)
  196. mineral/o
    mineral; electolyte (combining form)
  197. Osteoporosis
    abnormal thinninng of the bone structure

    treatment: bone density test for diagnosis; drugs that decrease the rate of bone resportion or drugs that activate estradiol receptors, and Ca supplements
  198. demineralization
    when bone breakdown exceeds new bone formation, Ca and P are lost and the bone becomes osteoporotic (porous)
  199. Ankylosing spondylitis
    chronic inflammation of the vertebrae that leads to fibrosis, restriction of movement, and stiffening of the spine.

    treatment: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  200. kyphosis
    abnormal, excessive, POSTERIOR curvature of the thoracic spine; also know as humpback or hunchback

    treatment: back brace or surgery to fuse and straighten the spine
  201. kyphoscoliosis
    complex curvature with components of both kyphosis and scoliosis

    treatment: back brace or surgery to fuse and straighten the spine
  202. por/o
    small openings; pores (combining form)
  203. ankyl/o
    fused together; stiff (combining form)
  204. -osing
    a condition of doing (suffix)
  205. kyph/o
    bent; humpbacked (combining form)
  206. scoli/o
    curved; crooked (combining form)
  207. lordosis
    abnormal, accessive ANTERIOR curvature of the lumbar spine. also known as swayback

    treatment: back brace or surgery to fuse and straighten the spine
  208. scoliosis
    abnormal, excessive, S-shaped or C-shaped LATERAL curvature of the spine. Can be congentital, but most often the cause is unknown. Develops during childhood. Impairs movement, posture and breathing. X-ray determines degree of curvatute.

    Treatment: back brace or surgery to fuse and straighten the spine
  209. spondylolisthesis
    degenerative condition of the spine in which one vertebra moves anteriorly over another vertebra and slips out of proper alignment due to degeneration of the intervertebral disk. Can occur b/c of a sports injury or a compression fracture of the vertebra from osteoporosis.

    Treatment: back brace or surgery to relieve a pinched spinal nerve. Analgesic drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Intra-articular injection of a corticosteriod drug.
  210. lord/o
    swayback (combining form)
  211. dextr/o
    right (combing form)
  212. lev/o
    left (combining form)
  213. olisthesis
    abnormal condition with slipping (suffix)
  214. arthralgia
    pain in the joint from injury, inflammatoin, or infection from various causes.
  215. arthropathy
    disease of a joint from any cause
  216. dislocation
    displacement of the end of a bone from its normal position within a joint, usually caused by injury or trauma

    treatment: manipulate and return the bone to its normal position
  217. dextroscoliosis
    abnormal, excessive, C-shaped or S-shaped curvature of the spine to the RIGHT
  218. levoscoliosis
    abnormal, excessive, C-shaped or S-shaped curvature of the spine to the LEFT
  219. Congenital dislocation of the hip
    present at birth b/c the acetabulum is poorly formed or the ligaments are loose.

    treatment: splint or surgery to correct the shape of the acetabulum or looseness of the ligaments.
  220. arthr/o
    joint (combining form)
  221. alg/o
    pain (Combining form)
  222. locat/o
    a place (combining form)
  223. congenit/o
    present at birth (combining form)
  224. Gout
    metabolic disorder occurring mostly in men where there is a high level of uric acid in the blood. an acute attack causes sudden, severe pain as uric acid moves from teh blood into the soft tissues and forms masses of crystals known as tophi (toes or hands).

    treatment: avoid foods that increase the uric acid level. drugs to decrease uric acid level
  225. tophi
    masses of crystals formed by uric acid moving from the blood into the soft tissues; usually form in toes or hands

    singular: tophus
  226. gouty athritis
    tophi in the joints
  227. hemarthrosis
    blood in the joint cavity from blunt trauma or a penetrating wound. Also occurs spontaneously in hemophiliac patients.

    Treatment: temporary immobilization fo the joint, aspiration of blood from the joint cavity, corticosteroid drugs; surgery: arthroscopy
  228. Lyme disease
    arthritis caused by a bacterium in the bite of an infected deer tick.

    erythematous rash that expands outward for several weeks (bull's eye) but is not itchy; joint pain, fever, chills and fatigue.

    If untreated, can cause severe fatigue and affect nervous system (numbness, severe headache) and the heart.

    treatment: antibiotic drugs
  229. osteoarthritis
    chronic inflammatory disease fo the joints, particularly the large weight-bearing joitns (knees, hips) and joints that move repeatedly (shoulders, neck hands). Usue begins in middle age, can begin earlier due to overuse or trauma. joint pain, stiffness, inflammation from constant wear and tear, worse if overweight. cartilage becomes roughened and then wears away in spots. bone ends rub.

    treatment: analgesic drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; intra-articular injection of corticosteriod drug
  230. crepitus
    grinding sound when bone ends rub against each other
  231. osteophyte
    sharp bone spur that causes pain
  232. degenerative joint disease (DJD)
    another name for osteoarthritis
  233. -phyte
    growth (suffix)
  234. gener/o
    production; creation (combining form)
  235. rheumatoid arthritis
    acute and chronic inflammatory disease of connective tissues, particularly of the joints. autoimmune disease - patient's antibodies attack cartilage and connective tissues. usually young to middle-aged females. redness and swelling of joings, most often hands and feet. joint cartilage is slowly destroyed by inflammation. symptoms flare and subside over time, progressive deformity in the joints.

    treatment: cortcosteroid drugs; joint replacement surgery
  236. sprain
    overstretching or tearing of a ligament

    treatment: rest or surgery to repair the ligament
  237. torn meniscus
    tear of the cartilage pad of the knee b/c of an injury

    treatment: arthroscopy and repair
  238. pectus excavatum
    congenital deformity of the bony thorax in which the sternum, particularly the xiphoid process, is bend inward, creating a hollow depression in the anterior chest

    treatment: surgery if severe
  239. genu valgum
    congenital deformity in which the knees are rotated toward the midline and are abnormally close together and the lower legs are bent laterally (knock knee)

    treatment: surgical correction, if severe
  240. genu varum
    congenital deformity in which the knees are rotated laterally away from each other and the lower legs are bent toward the midline (bowleg)

    treatment: surgical correction, if severe.
  241. rheumat/o
    watery discharge (combining form)
  242. hallux valgus
    deformity in which the great toe is angled laterally toward the other toes. bunion often develops at base of the great toe with swelling and inflammation. commonly seen in women who wear pointy-toed shoes.

    treatment: wear wide-toed shoes, bunionectomy
  243. talipes eqquinovarus
    congenital deformity in which the foot is pulled doward and toward the midline (clubfoot). can aftect one or both feet

    treatment: casts applied to progresssively straighten the foot; surgical correction for severe cases
  244. rheumatoid factor (RF)
    blood test that is positive in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
  245. uric acid
    blood test that has an elevated level in patients with gout and gouty arthritis
  246. arthrography
    procedure that uses a radiopaque contrast dye that is injected into a joint. coats and outlines joint capsule. x-ray or CT scan taken.

    produces an arthrogram
  247. MRI arthrography
    procedure that uses a strong magnetic field to align protons in the atoms of the patients body, which emit signals to form a series of thin, successive images or 'slices' of the joint and can be done w/ or w/out contast dye
  248. bone density tests
    procedure that measures the bone mineral density (BMD) to determine if demineralization from osteoporosis has occurred. Can test heel or wrist bone, but hip and spine give more accurate results.

    two types: DEXA (DXA) scan or Quantitiave Computerized Tomograph (QCT). known as bone densitometry
  249. DEXA (DXA) scan
    type of bone density test that uses two xray beams with diff E levels to create a 2D image. Can detect as little as 1% loss of bone

    dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry
  250. Quantitative Computerized Tomography (QCT)
    type of bone density test that uses an xray beam and a CT scan to create a 3D image. able to measure the density of both cancellous and cortical bone.

    Cancellous bone is the first to be affected by osteoporosis and the first to resond to therapy.
  251. bone scintigraphy
    nuclear medical procedure in which a phosphate cpd (DPD or MDP) is tagged with radioactive traced technetium-99m, injected intravenously and taken up into the bone. Gamma scintillation camera detects gamma rays from the radioactive tracer. hot spots indicate arthritis, fracture, osteomyelitis, cancerous tumors of the bone, or areas of bony metastasis.
  252. scintigram
    nuclear medicine image produced by bone scintigraphy
  253. x-ray
    procedure that uses x-rays to diagnose bony abnormalities in any part of the body. Primary means for diagnosing fractures, dislocations, and bone tumors.
  254. -graphy
    process of recording (suffix)
  255. -gram
    record or picture (suffix)
  256. tom/o
    cut; slice; layer (combining form)
  257. densit/o
    density (combining form)
  258. scint/i
    point of light (combining form)
  259. cast
    procedure in which a cast of plaster or fiberglass is applied around a fractured bone and adjacent areas to immobilize the fracture in a fixed position to facilitate healing.
  260. closed reduction
    procedure in which manual manipulation of a displaced fracture is performed so that the bone ends go back into normal alignment w/out the need for surgery
  261. extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT)
    procedure in which sound waves originating outside the body (extracorporeal) are used to break up bony spurs and treat other minor but painful problems of the foot.
  262. goniometry
    procedure in which a goniometer is used to measure the range of movement (ROM) of a joint
  263. goni/o
    angle (Combining form)
  264. orthosis
    orthopedic device (brace, splint, or collar) used to immobilize or correct an orthopedic problem. often custom made to fit patient.
  265. physical therapy
    procedure that uses active or passive exercises to improve a patient's range of motion, joint mobility, strength, and balance while walking.
  266. prosthesis (prosthetic device)
    orthopedic device such as an artificial leg that is used by a patient who has had an amputation of a limb. can also be an artificial joint.
  267. traction
    procedure that uses a weight to pull the bone ends of a fracture into correct alignment.
  268. skin traction
    uses elastic wraps, straps, halters or skin adhesives connect to a pulley and a weight to pull the bone ends of a fracture into correct alignment
  269. skeletal traction
    uses pins, wires or tongs inserted into the bone during surgery to pull the bone ends of a fracture into correct alignment
  270. halo traction
    uses pins inserted into the cranium and attached to a ciruclar metal frame that forms a halo around the patient's head. bars connect the halo into a rigid vest that immobilizes the chest and back while exerting upward traction on the head to straighten a fracture of the spine
  271. amputation
    procedure to remove all or part of an extremity b/c of trauma or circulatory disease.

    a muscle flap is wrapped over the end of the amputated limb to provide cushio and some bulk so that the patient can be fitted with a prosthesis.
  272. below the knee amputation (BKA)
    amputation performed at the level of the tibia and fibula
  273. above-the-knee amputation (AKA)
    amputation performed at the level of the femur
  274. arthrocentesis
    proecedure to remove an accumulation of fluid in a joint by using a needle inserted into the joint space
  275. arthrodesis
    procedure to fuse the bones in a degenerated, unstable joint
  276. orth/o
    straight (combining form)
  277. physic/o
    body (combining form)
  278. prosthet/o
    artficial part (combining form)
  279. tract/o
    pulling (combining form)
  280. amputat/o
    to cut off (combining form)
  281. -centesis
    procedure to puncture (suffix)
  282. -desis
    procedure to fuse together (suffix)
  283. arthroscopy
    procedure that uses an arthroscope inserted into the joint to visualize the inside of the joint and its structure. other instruments can be inserted through this device to scrape or cut damaged cartilage or smooth sharp bone edges
  284. bone graft
    procedure that uses whole bone or bone chips to repair fractures with extensive bone loss or defects due to bone cancer.
  285. autograft
    bone graft taken from the patient's own body
  286. allograft
    bone graft taken from frozen or freeze-dried bone from a cadaver
  287. bunionectomy
    procedure ot remove the prominent part of a metatarsal bone that is causing a bunion
  288. cartilage transplantation
    procedure that is an alternative to total knee replacement; used to treat middle-aged adults w/ degenerative joint disease of the knee who have an active lifestyle
  289. external fixation
    procedure used to treat a complicated fracture. device has metal pins that are inserted itno the bone on either side of the fracture and connected to a metal from to immobilize the fracture.
  290. leg lengthening
    procedure to treat a congenitally short leg with screws in the bone that are turned each day to pull the bone and lengthen it.
  291. -scopy
    proceess of using an instrument to examine (Suffix)
  292. -scope
    instrument used to examine (suffix)
  293. scop/o
    examine with an instrument (combining form)
  294. joint replacement surgery
    procedure to replace a joint that has been destroyed by disease or osteoarthritis. metal or plastic joint prosthesis inserted. done on hips, knees, shoulders, or even on the small joints of the fingers.
  295. total hip replacement (THR)
    head of femus is sawn off, the stem of the prosthesis is hammered into the cut end of the femur. head of the prosthesis is matched to the size of the patent's acetabulum. cup of the prosthesis is used to replace the acetabulum, and ball is inserted into the bup.
  296. -plasty
    process of reshaping by surgery (suffix)
  297. open reducation and internal fixation (ORIF)
    procedure to treat a complicated fracture. incision is made at the fracture site, the fracture is reduced (realigned) and an internal fixation procedure is doen using screws, nails, or plates to hold the fracture fragments in correct anatomical alignment.
  298. osteotome
    surgical device used to cut bone
  299. rongeur
    forcepss used to remove small bone fragments
  300. -tome
    instrument used to cut; area with distinct edges (suffix)
  301. analgesic drugs
    OTC drugs aspirin and acetaminophen decrease inflammation and pain. used to treat minor injuries and osteoarthritis. prescription narcotics are used to treat severe pain.
  302. bone resorption inhibitor drugs
    inhibit osteoclasts from breaking down bone. used to prevent and treat osteoporosis
  303. coricosteroid drugs
    decrease severe inflammation. given orally to treat osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. some given by intra-articular injection into the joint.
  304. gold compound drugs
    inhibit the immune response that attacks the joints and connective tissue in patients with RA. these drugs actually contain gold.
  305. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
    decrease inflammation and pain. used to treat osteoarthritis and orthopedic injuries. celebrex is a COX-2 inhibitor drug, a type that blocks the COX-2 enzyme that produces prostaglandins that cause pain
  306. AKA
    above-the-knee amputation (abbrev)
  307. AP
    anteroposterior (abbrev)
  308. BKA
    below-the-knee amputation (abbrev)
  309. BMD
    bone mineral density (abbrev)
  310. C1-C7
    cervical vertebrae (abbrev)
  311. CDH
    congenital dislocation of the hip (abbrev)
  312. DEXA, DXA
    dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (abbrev - 2)
  313. DIP
    distal interphalangeal joint (abbrev)
  314. DJD
    degenerative joint disease (abbrev)
  315. ESWT
    extracorporeal shock wave therapy
  316. Fx
    fracture (abbrev)
  317. L1-L5
    lumbar vertebrae (abbrev)
  318. LLE
    left lower extremity (abbrev)
  319. LUE
    left upper extemity (abbrev)
  320. MCP
    metacarpophalangeal joint (abbrev)
  321. NSAID
    nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (abbrev)
  322. OA
    osteoarthritis (abbrev)
  323. ORIF
    open reduction and internal fixation (abbrev)
  324. ortho
    orthopedics (slang abbrev)
  325. P
    phosphorus (chemica symbol)
  326. PIP
    proximal interphalangeal joint (abbrev)
  327. PT
    physical therapy or physical therapist (abbrev)
  328. QCT
    quantitative computerized tomography (abbrev)
  329. RA
    rheumatoid arthritis (abbrev)
  330. RF
    rheumatoid factor (abbrev)
  331. RLE
    right lower extremity (abbrev)
  332. ROM
    range of motion (abbrev)
  333. RUE
    right upper extremity (abbrev)
  334. S1
    first sacral vertebrae (abbrev)
  335. T1-T12
    thoracic vertebrae (abbrev)
  336. THR
    total hip replacement (abbrev)
  337. tib-fib
    tibia-fibula (slang abbrev)
  338. alges/o
    sensation of pain (combining form)
  339. sorb/o
    to suck up (combining form)
  340. -tion
    a process; being or having (suffix)
  341. cortic/o
    cortex (outer region) (combining form)
  342. inflammat/o
    redness and warmth (combining form)

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