MT Exam #3 - Chapter 7.txt

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MT Exam #3 - Chapter 7.txt
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Chapter Dermatology
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Skin
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  1. Integument
    Skin
  2. Integumentary system
    Body system that covers the entire surface of the body and consists of the skin, hair and nails
  3. integument/o
    cutane/o
    cut/i
    derm/a
    derm/o
    dermat/o
    skin (combining forms - 6)
  4. Subcutaneous tissue
    Loose, connective tissue directly beneath the dermis. It is composed of adipose tissue that contains lipocytes that store fat. When a dead body is buried in moist dirt, adipose tissue because adipocere. The subcutaneous tissue is near, but not part of, the integumentary system.
  5. adip/o
    fat (combining form)
  6. lip/o
    lipid (fat) (combining form)
  7. Adipose tissue
    Tissue that composes the subcutaneous layer beneath the dermis. Composed of lipocytes that store fat.
  8. Lipocytes
    Cell in the subcutaneous tissue that stores fat.
  9. Adipocere
    Adipose tissue when a dead body is buried in moist dirt.
  10. Collagen
    Firm, white protein connective tissue fibers throughout the dermis
  11. Coll/a
    fibers that hold together (combining forms)
  12. Cutaneous
    Pertaining to the skin
  13. Cuticle
    Layer of dead skin that arises from the epidermis around the proximal end of the nail. It keeps microorganisms from entering the nail root.
  14. Dermatome
    Area of the skin that sends sensory information through one neuron to the spinal cord
  15. Dermis
    • Layer of skin under the epidermis, categorized as connective tissue. It contains (8):
    • collagen
    • elastin fibers
    • arteries
    • veins
    • neurons
    • sebaceous glands
    • sweat glands
    • hair follicles
  16. Elastin
    Elastic, yellow protein fibers in the dermis
  17. Epidermis
    Thin, outermost layer of skin. The most superficial part of the epidermis consists of dead cells filled with keratin. The deepest part or basal layer contains constantly dividing cells and melanocytes.
  18. Basal layer
    Deepest layer of the epidermis, comprised of living cells that are constantly dividing and being forced to the surface.
  19. Epithelium/Epithelial Tissue
    Tissue category that includes the epidermis and al of its structures. It also includes the mucous membranes that line the walls of internal cavities that connect to the outside of the body.
  20. Exfoliation
    Normal process of hte constant shedding of dead skin cells from the most superficial part of the epidermis.
  21. Exocrine gland
    Type of gland that secretes substances through a duct. Ex: Sebaceous (oil) glands and sudoriferous (sweat) glands in the dermis.
  22. Follicle
    Site where a hair is formed. Located in the dermis.
  23. Hair
    Structure that grows as a shaft from a follicle in the dermis.
  24. Integument
    The hair, skin and nails
  25. Keratin
    Hard protein found in the cells of the outermost part of the epidermis and in the nails
  26. Lunula
    Whitish half-moon that is under the proximal portion of the nail plate. It is the visible white part of the nail root.
  27. Melanocyte
    Pigrment-containing cell in the epidermis that produces melanin.
  28. Melanin
    A dark brown or black pigment that gives color to the skin and hair.
  29. Nail bed
    Layer of living tissue beneath the nail plate, also known as the quick.
  30. Nail plate
    Hart, flat protective covering over the distal end of each finger and toe. It is composed of dead cells that contain keratin. Also known as the nail.
  31. Piloerection
    Process in which an erector muscle contracts (to form a goosebump) and the body hair becomes erect when the skin is cold.
  32. Perspiration
    Process of sweating and the sweat itself. Sweat is secreted by sudoriferous glands. It contains sodium and waste products. As its water content evaporates from the skin, it cools the body.
  33. Sebaceous gland
    Exocrine gland of the skin that secretes sebum through a duct. Located in the dermis. The duct joins with a hair follicle, and sebum coats the hair shaft. Also known as an oil gland.
  34. Sebum
    Secretion from a sebaceous (oil) gland that consists of oil that coats and protects the hair shaft to keep it from becoming brittle.
  35. Skin
    Tissue covering of the body that consists of two layers (epidermis and dermis). One part of the integumentary system.
  36. Sudoriferous gland
    Exocrine gland of the skin that secretes sweat through a duct. Located in the dermis. The duct opens at a pore on the surface of the skin. Also known as a sweat gland.
  37. Allergen
    Cells from plants or animals (foods, pollens, molds, animal dander) as well as dust, chemicals, and drugs that cause an allergic reaction in a hypersensitive person.
  38. Allergic reaction
    Resposne to an allergen in ahypersensitive person. Based on the release of histamine. Also known as an allergy.
  39. Histamine
    Released from basophils in the blood and mast cells in the connective tissue; the basis of all allergic reactions
  40. Anaphylaxis/Anaphylactic shock
    Severe systemic allergic reaction characterized by respiratory distress, hypotension, and shock.
  41. Hypersensitivity
    Individually unique response to an allergen that provokes an allergic response in some people.
  42. Local reaction
    Allergic reaction that takes place on an area of the skin that was exposed to an allergen
  43. Mast cells
    Cells in the connective tissue that release histamine during an allergic reaction
  44. Systemic reaction
    Allergic reaction that takes places throughout the body in a hypersensitive person after contact with an allergen that was ingested, inhaled, or injected.
  45. Elast/o
    Flexing; stretching (combining form)
  46. bas/o
    base of a structure; basic (alkaline) (combining form)
  47. theli/o
    cellular layer (combining form)
  48. foli/o
    leaf (combining form)
  49. ex/o
    away from; external; outward (combining form)
  50. follicul/o
    follicle (small sac) (combining form)
  51. pil/o
    trich/o
    hair (comining form - 2)
  52. integu/o
    to cover (combining form)
  53. kerat/o
    cornea (of the eye); hard, fibrous protein (combining form)
  54. lun/o
    moon (combining form)
  55. melan/o
    black (combining form)
  56. ungu/o
    onycho/o
    nail (fingernail or toenail) (combining form - 2)
  57. spir/o
    breathe; a coil (combining form)
  58. erect/o
    to stand up (combining form)
  59. sebace/o
    seb/o
    sebum (oil) (combining form - 2)
  60. sudor/i
    hidr/o
    diaphore/o
    sweat (combining form - 3)
  61. fer/o
    to bear (combining form)
  62. all/o
    other; strange (combining form)
  63. erg/o
    activity; work (combining form)
  64. phylact/o
    guarding; protecting (combining form)
  65. sensitiv/o
    affected by; sensitive to (combining form)
  66. loc/o
    in one place (combining form)
  67. system/o
    the body as a whole (combining form)
  68. Dermatitis
    Any disease condition that includes inflammation or infection of the skin.

    Treatment: treat the underlying cause.
  69. itis
    inflammation of; infection of (suffix)
  70. Edema
    Excessive amounts of fluid move from the blood into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue and cause swelling.

    Localized areas occur with inflammation, allergic reactions, and infections.

    Large areas occur with cardiovascular diseases.

    Treatment: correct the underlying cause
  71. Hemorrhage
    Trauma to the skin releases a small amount of blood.
  72. Extravasation
    when the blood released by the skin in response to a trauma (hemorrhage) flows into the surrouding tissues.
  73. Petechia
    Pinpoint hemorrhages in teh skin from ruptured capillaries

    Plural: petechiae
  74. Contusion
    Any size of hemorrhage under the skin (commonly known as a bruise)
  75. Ecchymosis
    Hemorrhage under the skin that is 3cm in diameter or larger. (commonly known as a bruise)

    • Plural: ecchymoses
    • Adjective: ecchymotic
  76. Hematoma
    An elevated, localized collection of blood under the skin
  77. hem/o
    blood (combining form)
  78. rrhage
    excessive flow or discharge (suffix)
  79. extra
    outside of (prefix)
  80. vas/o
    blood vessel; vas deferens (combining form)
  81. ation
    a process; being or having (suffix)
  82. contus/o
    bruising (combining form)
  83. ion
    action; condition (suffix)
  84. ecchym/o
    blood in the tissues (combining form)
  85. osis
    condition; abnormal condition; process (suffix)
  86. -oma
    tumor; mass (suffix)
  87. lesion
    Any area of visibel damage onteh skin, whether it's from disease or injury

    Treatment: treat the underlying cause
  88. Types of lesions (8)
    cyst, fissure, macule, papule, pustule, scale, vesicle, wheal
  89. cyst
    Type of lesion: elevated circular mound, skin colored or erythema, semisolid or partly fluid-filled.

    ex: acne sebaceous cyst
  90. Fissure
    Type of lesion: small, cracklike crevice, erythema, possibly some fluid exudate

    Ex: dried, chapped skin
  91. Macule
    Type of lesion: flat circle; pigmented, brown or black

    Ex: freckle, age spot
  92. Papule
    Type of lesion: Elevated; skin color or erythema; solid

    ex: acne pimple
  93. Pustule
    Type of lesion: elevated; white top; filled with pus

    ex: acne whitehead
  94. Scale
    Type of lesion: flat to slightly elevated, thin flake; white

    ex: dandruff, psoriasis
  95. Vesicle
    Type of lesion: elevated with pointed top; erythema, transparent top; filled with clear fluid

    ex: herpes, chickenpox, shingles
  96. Wheal
    Type of lesion: elevated with broad, flat top; erythema, pale top; filled with clear fluid

    ex: insect bites, uricaria
  97. fiss/o -
    splitting (combining form)
  98. -ure
    system; result of (suffix)
  99. vesic/o-
    vesicul/o-
    bladder; fluid-filled sac (combining form - 2)
  100. -cle
    small thing (suffix)
  101. -ar
    pertaining to (suffix)
  102. neoplasm
    Any benign or malignant new growth that occurs on or in the skin.

    Treatment: excision of benign; exision and chemotherapy or radiation therapy for malignant
  103. Benign
  104. Malignant
  105. ne/o-
    new (prefix)
  106. -plasm
    growth, formed substance (suffix)
  107. malign/o-
    intentionally causing harm; cancer (combining form)
  108. -ant
    pertaining to (suffix)
  109. Pruritus
    Itching.

    Associated with many skin diseases. Also part of an allergic reaction because of the realse of histamine.

    Treatment: topical or oral antihistamine drugs or corticosteriod drugs
  110. Pruritic
    A patient with pruritus (itching)
  111. Rash
    Any type of skin lesion tha tis pink to red, flat or raised, pruritic or non-pruritic. Certain system diseases (chickenpox, measles) have characteristic ones.

    Treatment: topical or oral antihistamines drugs or corticosteroid drugs
  112. Wound
    Any area of visible damage to the skin that is caused by physical means (such as rubbing, trauma, etc).

    Treatment: apply a protective covering and topical antibiotic drug to prevent infection
  113. Xeroderma
    Excessive dryness of the skin. Can be caused by aging, cold weather with low humidity, vitamin A deficiency, or dehydration

    Treatment: treat the underlying cause
  114. Skin turgor
    Test used to determine skin's level of hydration

    Fold of skin pinched between thumb and fingertips should flatten out immediately when released. Dehydration causes the skin to remain elevated (tenting of the skin) or to flatten out very slowly.
  115. Albinism
    Lack of pigment in the skin, hair and iris of the eye. Genetic mutation in which the melanocytes do not produce melatonin. No treatment.
  116. Albino
    A person afflicted with albinism
  117. Cyanosis
    Bluish-purple discoloration of the skin and nails due to a decreased level of oxygen in the blood.

    Caused by ccardiac or respiratory disease. Can also be temporarily expressed in healthy persons on areas of the skin exposed to the cold.

    Treatment: correct the underlying cause
  118. Cyanotic
    a person suffering from cyanosis
  119. Erythema
    Reddish discoloration of the skin. Can be confined to one area of local inflammation or infection, or can affect large areas of the skin surface as in sunburn.

    Treatment: correct the underlying cause
  120. Erythematous
    area suffering from erythema
  121. Jaundice/icterus
    Yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and whites of the eyes, associated with liver disease. The liver cannot process bilirubin, and high levels of unconjugated hilirubin in the blood move into the tissues and color the skin yellow.
  122. Icteric
    a jaundiced patient
  123. Anicteric
    a patient without jaundice
  124. prurit/o-
    itching (combining form)
  125. -ic
    pertaining to (suffix)
  126. xer/o-
    dry (combining form)
  127. albin/o-
    white (combining form)
  128. -ism
    process; disease from a specific cause (suffix)
  129. cyan/o-
    blue (combining form)
  130. -tic
    -ic
    pertaining to (combining form - 2)
  131. erythemato/o-
    redness (combining form)
  132. -ous
    pertaining to (suffix)
  133. icter/o-
    jaundice (combining form)
  134. Necrosis
    gray-to-black discoloration of the skin in areas where the tissue has died.

    Can occur in a burn, decubitus ulcer, wound, or any tissue with a poor blood supply

    Treatment: treat the underlying cause
  135. Gangrene
    Necrosis with subsequent bacteria invasion and decay
  136. Gengrenous
    area suffering from gangrene
  137. Pallor
    unnatural paleness due to a lack of blood supply to the tissue.

    Caused by a blockage of an artery, hypotension, or severe expose to the cold.

    Treatment: treat the underlying cause
  138. Vitiligo
    Autoimmune disease in which the melanocytes are slowly destroyed in irregular and ever-enlarging areas. Causes white patches of depigmentation interspersed with normal skin.

    No treatment
  139. Depigmentation
    Creation of white patches of skin interspersed with normal skin where the melanocytes are sloly destroyed (vitiligo)
  140. Necr/o-
    dead cells, tissue or body (combining form)
  141. gangren/o-
    gangrene (combining form)
  142. de-
    reversal of; without (prefix)
  143. pigment/o
    pigment (combining form)
  144. -ation
    process; being or having (suffix)
  145. Chloasma
    "mask of pregnancy" dark, hyperpigmented areas on the face caused by melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the anterior pituitary gland activated during pregnancy
  146. Linea nigra
    vertical dark line on the skin of the abdomen from the umbilicus downward caused by melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the anterior pituitary gland activated during pregnancy
  147. Striae
    stretch marks on the skin and buttocks caused by small tears in the dermis as the skin stretches.
  148. Laceration
    Deep, peentrating wound. Can have clearn cut or or torn, ragged skin edges.

    Treatment: layered closure with sutures
  149. Abscess
    Localized, pus-containing pocket caused by a bacterial infection. The infection is usually caused by staphylococcus aureus, a common bacterium on the skin

    Treatment: incision and drainage, oral antibiotic drugs
  150. Furuncle/boil
    a localized, elevated abscess around a hair follicle and the skin is inflamed and painful

    Treatment: incision and drainage, oral antibiotic drugs
  151. Carbuncle
    Composed of large furuncles with connecting channels through the subcutaneous tissue or to the skin surface

    Treatment: incision and drainage, oral antibiotic drugs
  152. Cellulitis
    Spreading inflammation and infection of the connective tissues of the skin and muscle. Develops from a superficial cut, scratch, insect bite, blister, or splinter that becomes infected. The infecting bacteria produce enzymes that allow the infection to spread between the tissue layers.

    Thereis erythema (often as a red streak), warmth and pain

    Treatment: oral antibiotic drugs
  153. Herpes
    Skin infection caused by the herpes virus. There are clustered vesicles, erythema, edema, and pain. The vesicles rupture, releasing clear fluid that forms crusts.

    Treatment: topical or oral antiviral drugs.
  154. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1
    Occurs on the lips. These lesions tend to recur during illness and stress.

    Also known as cold sores or fever blisters
  155. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2
    Sexually transmitted disease that causes vesicles in teh genital area. These lesions tend to recur during illness and stress.

    Also known as genital herpes.
  156. Herpes whitlow
    A herpes simplex infection at the base of the fingernail from contact with herpes simplex 1 of the mouth or type 2 of the genitals. The virus enters through asmall tear in the cuticle.
  157. Herpes varicella-zoster
    causes the skin rash of chickenpox during childhood. The virus then remains dormant in the body until it is activated in later life by illness or emotional stress. Then it forms painful vesicles and crusts along a dermatome.

    Also known as shingles.
  158. cellul/o-
    cell (combining form)
  159. tinea
    Skin infection caused by a funcus that feeds on epidermal cells. Multiplies quickly in the warm, moist environment of body creases and areas enclosed by clothing or shoes.

    Severe itching and burning with round, red, scaly lesions.

    Also known as ringworm due to its round lesions.

    Treatment: topical antifungal drugs
  160. Tinea capitis
    Infection caused by a fungus that feeds on epidermal cells

    Occurs on the scalp and causes hair loss

    Treatment: topical antifungal drugs
  161. Tinea corporis
    Infection caused by a fungus that feeds on epidermal cells

    Occurs on the trunk of the body

    Treatment: topical antifungal drugs
  162. Tinea cruris
    Infection caused by a fungus that feeds on epidermal cells

    Occurs in the groin and genital areas

    Jock itch

    Treatment: topical antifungal drugs
  163. Tinea pedis
    Infection caused by a fungus that feeds on epidermal cells

    Occurs on the feet

    Athlete's foot

    Treatment: topical antifungal drugs
  164. Verruca
    Irregular, rough skin lesions caused by HPV. Usuallly on thehand, fingers or the sole of the foot (plantar wart)

    Also known as a wart

    Treatment: Topical keratolytic drug to break down teh keratin in the wart. Cryosurgery or electrosurgery, if needed

    Plural: Verrucae
  165. Pediculosis
    Infestation of lice and their eggs (nits) in the scalp, hair, eyelashes or pubic hair. Easily transmitted person-to-person by combs or hats.

    Treatment: Shampoo and skin lotion
  166. Scabies
    Infestation of parasitic mites that tunnel under the skin and produce vesicles that are itchy

    Treatment: shampoo and skin lotion to kill
  167. Contact dermatitis
    Local reaction to physical contact with a substance that is an allergen or an irritant. The skin becomes inflamed and irritated. Small vesicles may also appear.

    Treatment: topical or oral antihistamine drug or corticosteroid drugs.

    Ex: chemicals (deodorants, soaps, detergents, makeup, urine); metals; synthetic products (latex gloves, spandex bathing suit or girdle); plants (poison ivy); or animals
  168. pedicul/o-
    lice (combining form)
  169. Uticaria
    Condition of raised areas of redness and edema that appear suddenly and may also disappear rapidly. Itching (pruritus), and scratching tends to cause the areas to enlarge.

    Caused by an allergic reaction to food, plants, animals, insect bites, or drugs.

    Also known as hives

    Treatment: Topical or oral antihistamine drugs or corticosteroid drugs
  170. Wheal
    An individual area of uticaria

    Treatment: Topical or oral antihistamine drugs or corticosteroid drugs
  171. Welt
    A large wheal

    Treatment: Topical or oral antihistamine drugs or corticosteroid drugs
  172. Actinic or solar keratoses
    Raised, irregular, rough areas of the skin that are dry and feel like sandpaper. Develop in middle-aged persons in areas chronically exposed to the sun. Can become squamous cell carinoma.

    Treatment: avoid more sun exposure
  173. Freckle
    Benign, pigmented, flat macule that develops after sun exposure. Contain groups of melanocytes. Fade over time without continued sun exposure.
  174. Hemangioma
    Congenital growth composed of a mass of superficial and dilated blood vessles.

    Most go away without treatment by age 3
  175. Lipoma
    Benign growth of adipose tissue from teh subcutaneous layer. A soft, rounded, nontender fatty elevation in the skin.

    Treatment: Excision, if desired.
  176. angi/o-
    Blood vessel; lymphatic vessel (cobining form)
  177. Nevus
    Benign skin lesion present at birth. Comes in a variety of colors and shapes.

    Includes port-wine stains, birthmarks and dysplastic nevi

    Treatment: Excision of a mole if clothing irritates it; laser treatment to remove port-wine stains;
  178. Port-wine stains
    Slightly elevated, red-to-purple vasuclar nevus that is irregularly shaped. Can cover large areas of skin on teh face and neck. Shape and color resembles a puddle of spilled wine.

    Also known as birthmarks

    Treatment: laser removal
  179. Dysplastic nevus
    Has irregular edges and variations in color. Can develop into a malignant melanoma. Should be observed for change.
  180. Papilloma
    Small, soft, flesh-colored growth of epidermis and dermis that protrudes outwardly. Comes in a variety of shapes: irregular mounds, globes, flaps, or polyps with rounded tops on slender stalks. Occurs on the eyelids, neck, or trunk of the body.

    Also known as a skin tag

    Treatment: Removal by cryotherapy, electrocautery, or surgical excision, if desired.
  181. Premalignant skin lesions
    Abnormal skin lesions that are not yet cancerous. Over time and with continued exposure to sunlight or irritation, these leisons can become cancerous.

    Treatment: None, observe for change
  182. Senile lentigo
    Light-to-dark brown macules with irregular edges. Occur most often on the hands and face, areas that are chronically exposed to the sun

    Also known as age spots or liver spots
  183. pre-
    before; in front of (prefix)
  184. malign/o-
    intentionally causing harm; cancer (combining form)
  185. sen/o-
    old age (combining form)
  186. papill/o-
    elevated structure (combining form)
  187. Syndactyly
    Congentital abnormality in which the skin and soft tissues are joined between the fingers or toes. In some cases, the fingernails or toenails are also joined.

    Treatment: surgical correction, if desired
  188. Polydactyly
    Congential abnormality in which there are extra fingers or toes
  189. Xanthoma
    Benign growth that's a yellow nodule or plaque on the hands, elbows, knees or feet. Seen in patients who have a high level of lips in the blood or have diabetes mellitus.

    Treatment: excision, if desired
  190. Xanthelasma
    A xanthoma that occurs on teh eyelid
  191. Cancer of the skin
    A malignanacy in areas ofthe skin that are chronically exposed to UV light radiation from the sun. More common in older adults (lifetime of sun exposure) and in fair-skinned persons (less melanin to absorb radiation).

    Treatment: excision, chemotherapy drugs, photodynamic therapy
  192. Basal cell carcinoma
    Skin cancer that begins in the basal layer of the epidermis. Most common type of skin cancer. Often appears as a raised, pearly bump. Slow-growing cancer that doesn't metastasize to other parts of the body
  193. Malignant melanoma
    Skin cancer that begins in melanocytes in teh epidermis. Grows quickly and metastasizes to other parts of the body.

    • Four characteristics:
    • Assymetry
    • Border or edge is irrecular or ragged
    • Color varies from black to brown (or red) within the same lesion
    • Diameter is greater than 6 mm
  194. Squamous cell carcinoma
    Skin cancer that begins n teh flat squamous cells of the superficiallayer of the epidermis. Often begins as an actinic keratosis. Most often appears as a red bump or ulcer. Second most common type of skin cancer. Grows slowly.
  195. dactyly-
    condition of fingers or toes (combining form)
  196. squam/o-
    scalelike cell (combining form)
  197. Kaposi's sarcoma
    Skin cancer that begins in connective tissue or lymph nodes. Tumors on the skin are elevated, irrecular and dar reddish-blue. Once a relatively rare malignancy, but's now commonly seen in AIDS patients.

    Treatment: excision of the single lesions, radiation therapy for multiple lesions
  198. sarc/o-
    connective tissue
  199. Psoriasis
    Autoimmune disorder that produces an excessive number of epidermal cells. The skin lesions are itchy, red and covered with silvery scales and plaques. Usually occur on the scalp, elbows, hands, and knees. Illness and stress can cause flare-ups. Has a hereditary component.

    Treatment: topical coal tar drugs, vitamin A drugs, vitamin D drugs, and corticosteroid drugs, light therapy with a psoralen drug and UV light A (PUVA)
  200. Scleroderma
    Autoimmune disorder that causes the skin and internal organs to progressively harden due to deposits of collagen.

    Treatment: oral corticosteroid drugs
  201. Systemic lupus erythematosus
    Autoimmune disorder with deterioration of collagen in teh skin and connective tissues. Joint pain, sensitivity to sunlight, and fatigue. Often there's a characteristic butterfly-shaped, erythmatous rash over the bridge of the nose that spreads out over the cheeks

    Treatmen: oral corticosteroid drugs
  202. Psor/o-
    itching (combining form)
  203. -iatic
    pertaining to a state or process (suffix)
  204. scler/o-
    hard; sclera (white of the eye) (combining form)
  205. Acne vulgaris
    Producation of large amounts of sebum by the sebaceous glands, particularly on the forehead, nose, chin, shoulders and back, during puberty. The excess builds around the hair shaft, hardens, and blocks the follicle. The blocked secretions elevate the skin and form a reddish papule.

    As bacteria feed on teh subum, they release irritating substances that produce inflammation.

    In severe cystic acne, the papules enlarge to form deep, pus-filled cysts.

    Treatment: topical cleansing drugs, topical or oral antibiotic drugs to kill skin bacteria, oral vitamin A-type drugs for severe cystc acne
  206. Comedo
    Blackhead caused when sebum turns black as its oil is oxidezed from exposure to the air
  207. Whitehead
    Caused when the bacteria feeding on the sebum produce infection, drawing white blood cells to teh area and forming pustules or whiteheads.
  208. Acne rosacea
    Chronic skin condition of the face middle-aged patients. Sebaceous glands secrete excessive amoutns of sebum. Blotchy, erythema, dialated superficial blood vessels, papules, and edema that is made worse by heat, cold stress, emotions, certain foods, alcoholic beverages, and sunlight.

    Treatment: topical antibacterial and antiprotozoal drugs; laser surgery to destroy small, superficial blood vessesls.
  209. Rhinophyma
    An erythematous, irregular enlargement of the nose men can develop
  210. -phyma
    tumor; growth (suffix)
  211. Seborrhea
    Overproduction of sebum, particularly on face and scalp, that occurs at a time other than puberty.

    In seborrheic dermatitis, oily areas are interspersed with patches of dry, scaly skin and dandruff. Can also be erythema and crusty, yellow exudates. In adults, often appears after illness or stress.

    Can be caused by environmental or food allergies

    Treatment: topical corticosteroid drugs, medicated shampoos
  212. Cradle cap
    sehorrhea dermatitis in infants
  213. Eczema
    seborrhea in children and adults
  214. Anhidrosis
    Congenital absence of the sweat glands and inability to tolerate heat

    Treatment: avoid overheating
  215. Diaphoresis
    Profuse sweating. Caused by an underlying condition such as myocardial infarction, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia or withdrawal from narcotic drugs.

    Treatment: treat underlying cause
  216. Diaphoretic
    patient suffering from diaphoresis. NOT caused by high fever, emotional stress, strenuous exercise or hot flashes.
  217. Alopecia
    Acute or chronic loss of scalp hair

    Treatment: topical drugs that dilate the arteries in teh scalp or oral drugs that block the effect of DHT (substance that is increasedin teh balding scalp)
  218. Folliculitis
    Inflammation or infection of the hair follicle. Occurs after shaving, plucking, or removing hair with hot wax.

    Treatment: topical coticosteroid or antibiotic drugs
  219. Hirsutism
    Presence of excessive, dark hair on the forearms and over the upper lip of a woman. Due to too much of the male hormone androgen caused by a tumor in the adrenal cortex.

    Treatment: correct the underlying cause
  220. Pilonidal sinus
    Abnormal passageway (fistula) that begins as a large, abnormal hair follicle that contains a hair that is never shed. THe follicle is visible as apit or dimple on teh skin in teh sacral area of hte back. Irritation causes the hair follicle to become infected, eventually creating a sinus into the subcutaneous tissue, with erythema, tenderness, and purulent discharge.

    Treatmen: incision and drainage of the sinus
  221. -rrhea
    flow; discharge (suffix)
  222. alopec/o-
    bald (combining form)
  223. Schizotrichia
    split ends on hairs
  224. Clubbing
    abnormally curved fingernails and stunted growth of the finger associated with a chronic lack of oxygen in patients with cystic fibrosis
  225. onychomycosis
    Fungal infection of the fingernails or toenails. Infects the nail root and deforms the nail as it grows.

    Treatment: topical or oral antifungal drugs
  226. Paronychia
    Bacterial infection of the skin next to the cuticle. Can be caused by an injury, nail biting, or a manicure that trims the cuticle. Tenderness, erythema, swelling, and sometimes an abscess with pus.

    Treatment: oral antibiotic drugs
  227. myc/o-
    fungus (combining form)
  228. par-
    beside (prefix)

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