Medical Terminology CH. 6

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Medical Terminology CH. 6
2011-10-10 23:05:37
Digestive System

Digestive System
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  1. bilirubin
    orange-colored or yellowish pigment in bile
  2. bolus
    mass of masticated food ready to be swallowed
  3. exocrine
    denotes a gland that secretes its products through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel
  4. sphincter
    circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening of the body
  5. or/o
  6. gloss/o
  7. bucc/o
  8. cheil/o
  9. dent/o
  10. gingiv/o
  11. sial/o
    saliva, salivary gland
  12. esophag/o
  13. pharyng/o
  14. gastr/o
  15. pylor/o
  16. duoden/o
    duodenum (first part of small intestine)
  17. enter/o
    intestine (usually small intestine)
  18. jejun/o
    jejunum (second part of the small intestine)
  19. ile/o
    ileum (third part of small intestine)
  20. append/o
  21. col/o
  22. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid colon
  23. rect/o
  24. proct/o
    anus, rectum
  25. an/o
  26. hepat/o
  27. pancreat/o
  28. cholangi/o
    bile vessel
  29. chol/e
    bile, gall
  30. cholecyst/o
  31. choledoch/o
    bile duct
  32. -emesis
  33. -iasis
    abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
  34. -megaly
  35. -orexia
  36. -pepsia
  37. -phagia
    swallowing, eating
  38. -prandial
  39. -rrhea
    discharge, flow
  40. dia-
    through, across
  41. peri-
  42. sub-
    under, below
  43. anorexia
    lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
  44. appendicitis
    inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
  45. ascites
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
  46. borborygmus
    rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine
  47. chachexia
    physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS and cancer
  48. cholelithiasis
    presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
  49. cirrhosis
    scarring and dysfunction of the liver cause by chronic liver disease
  50. colic
    spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain
  51. crohn disease
    chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal tract; also called regional enteritis
  52. deglutition
    act of swallowing
  53. dysentery
    inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, which results in bloody diarrhea
  54. dyspepsia
    epigastric discomfort felt after eating; also called indigestion
  55. dysphagia
    inability or difficulty in swallowing; also called aphagia
  56. eructation
    producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sound; also called belching
  57. fecalith
    fecal concretion
  58. flatus
    gas in the GI tract; expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus
  59. gastroesophageal reflux disease
    backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus
  60. halitosis
    offensive, or "bad," breath
  61. hematemesis
    vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
  62. irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
    symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function (typically constipation, diarrhea, or alternating constipation and diarrhea) for which no organic cause can be determined; also called spastic colon
  63. malabsorption syndrome
    symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph
  64. melena
    passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
  65. obesity
    morbid obesity
    • excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent of more above ideal body weight
    • BMI of 40+ (about 100lbs over body ideal body weight)
  66. obstipation
    severe constipation; may be caused by an intestinal obstruction
  67. oral leukoplakia
    formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheek caused primarily by irritation
  68. peristalsis
    progressive, wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the GI tract
  69. pyloric stenosis
    stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphinter (circular muscle of the pylorus) at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine
  70. regurgitation
    backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach
  71. steatorrhea
    passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it
  72. endoscopy
    visual examination of a cavity or canal using a flexible fiberoptic instrument called an endoscope
  73. upper GI
    lower GI
    endoscopy of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
  74. hepatitis panel
    panel of blood tests that identify the specific virus-- hep A (HAV) hep B (HBV), or hep C (HCV)- causing hepatitis by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antigens
  75. liver function tests (LFTs)
    group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions often associated with the biliary tract
  76. serum bilirubin
    measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood
  77. stool culture
    test to identify microorganisms or parasites present in feces
  78. stool guaiac
    applying a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect presence of occult (hidden) blood in the feces; also called Hemoccult
  79. barium enema (BE)
    radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium) into the rectum; also called lower GI series
  80. barium swallow
    radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium); also called esophagram and upper GI series
  81. cholecystography
    radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet
  82. computed tomography (CT)
    imaging technique achieved by rotating an xray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
  83. endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
    endoscopic procedure that provides radiographic cisualization of the bile and pancreatic ducts to identify partial or total obstructions, as well as stones, cysts, and tumors
  84. percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTCP)
    radiographic examination of bile duct structures
  85. sialography
    radiologic examination of the salivary glands and ducts
  86. abdominal ultraonography (US)
    ultrasound visualization of the abdominal aorta, liver, gallbladder, bile, ducts, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and bladder
  87. nasogastric intubation
    procedure that involves insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastic distention by removing gas, food, or gastric secretions; to instill medication, food, or fluids; or to obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis
  88. anastomosis
    surgical joining to 2 ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from 1 to another
  89. ileorectal anastomosis
    intestinal "
    • surgical connection of the ileum and rectum after total colectomy, as is sometimes perfomed in the treatment of ulcerative colitis
    • surgical connection of 2 portions of the intestines; also called enteroenterostomy
  90. bariatric surgery
    group of procedures that treat morbid obesity, a condition which arises from severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue, and the resultant health problems
  91. vertical banded gastroplasty
    upper stomach near the esophagus is stapled vertically to reduce it to a small pouch. A band is then inserted that restricts food consumption and delays its passage from the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness
  92. roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RGB)
    stomach is first stapled to decrease it to a small pouch. Next, the jejunum is shortened and connected to the small stomach pouch , causing the base of the duodenum leading from the nonfunctioning portion of the stomach to form a Y configuration. This decreased the pathway of food thru the intestine, thus reducing absorption of calories and fats
  93. colostomy
    creation of an opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag
  94. lithotripsy
    procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments either surgically or using ultrasonic shock waves
  95. polypectomy
    excision of a polyp (small growth)
  96. pyloromyotomy
    incision of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pyloris; used to treat hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
  97. antacids
    counteract or neutralize acidity, usually in the stomach
  98. antidiarrheals
    control loose stools and relieve diarrhea by absorbing excess water in the bowel or slowing peristalsis in the intestinal tract
  99. antiemetics
    control nausea and vomiting by blocking nerve impulses to the vomiting center of the brain
  100. antispasmodics
    decrease GI spasms by slowing peristalsis and motility thruout the GI tract
  101. laxatives
    treat constipation by increasing peristaltic activity in the large intestine or increasing water and electrolyte secretion into the bowel to increase defecation