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What does Moore's law state?
the number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit doubles approx. every 2 years
What do the x and y axes of the' Emerging T-Profile' indicate?
- x: breadth of knowledge
- y: depth of knowledge
What are the 4 stages of the 'Emerging T-Profile'?
- 1. school
- 2. undergrad
- 3. postgrad
- 4. experiential learning
What is 'Systems Engineering' (SE)?
- A mix of all engineering and business disciplines, used to form a structured development process that leads from concept to production to operation.
For what 4 reasons does SE fail? (often for large-scale, socio-technical systems)
- 1. it's linear
- 2. it needs set requirements
- 3. doesn't understand indirect effects
- 4. lacks understanding at operation/management level
What is the opposite of 'complicated'?
What is the opposite of complex?
What characteristics does an 'Engineering System' (ES) have?
High degree of technical complexity, social intricacy and elabortate processes.
Aims at fulfilling a function in society.
What does the 'System's Approach' aim to do?
Understand a part in the context of the whole, interacting with, and adapting to, its environment.
What are the 3 ways a problem can be addressed?
- 1. Resolved - good enough approach
- 2. Dissolved - change the situation so it disappears
- 3. Solved - fixed it
What is 'Interdependence'?
The reliance and effect parts may have on one another
What's the best why to observe a part's interdependence in a system?
Remove the part
What is 'Model-Based Systems Engineering' (MBSE)?
Using a model as the centeral foundation of a process and gain insite into engineering the solution
What is the difference between modelling and simulation?
Modelling: creates a mathematical (or other) formulation to describe behaviour
Simulation: applies computational models to predict events in behaviour
What is the theory behind 'Agent-based Mdoeling & Simulation' (ABMS)?
Model smaller agents and allow them to interact autonomously in an environemtn to simulate their interaction. Agents interacting with other agents.
What does complexity measure?
The difficulty in describing and modelling a system, and thus the difficulty in predicting it.
What are the 3 attributes of complexity?
- 1. many parts
- 2. many relationships
- 3. emergence (combined, not easily forseen effects. eg. neurons)
Define the 'Organismic Analogy'
In many ways, systems bahave as organisms
What is emergence?
Effects produced by interacting parts, that are not apparent from individual examination (e.g. neurons)
How does SE deal with complex projects?
Decomposes them into manageable protions. Whole=sum of the parts
How doi ES deal with complex projects?
Study and harness interactions to form a whole<sum of the parts
What are the two ways of constructing a static or dynamic body?
- Top-down (control)
- Bottom-up (interaction)
What is 'Self-organised Criticality'?
A state the some systems drive themselves to in which they are always on the brink of collapse but never go over (e.g. the river Nile)
What is evolution (in a systems context)?
the idea of change and natural selection within a system/collection of systems that allows it to adapt to the changing environment.