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2010-03-16 11:46:56

chapter 15
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  1. Autonomic Nervous System
    • -System of motor neurons that innervate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
    • -Regulates visceral functions (HR, BP, digestion, urination)
    • -ANS= general visceral motor division
    • -Peripheral nerves serve the somatic system; all mixed cranial nerves, all spinal nerves
    • -Peripheral nerves serve the autonomic AND somatic: some cranial nerves
  2. CNS and PNS
    CNS- Brain and Spinal Cord

    PNS- Cranila nerves and Spinal Nerves
  3. Sensory (Afferent Division)
    -Somatic and Visceral
    • Somatic Sensory- Touch, pain, pressure, vibration, temperature, and proprioception in skin, body wall, and limbs
    • - Hearing, equilibrium, vision, smell
    • Visceral Sensory- Stretch, pain, temperature, chemical changes, and irritation in viscera: nausea and hunger
    • - Taste
  4. Motor(Efferent)
    -Somatic and visceral
    Somatic Motor- Motor innervation of all skeletal muscles

    • Visceral Motor- Mmotor innervation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands; equivalent to ANS
    • - Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions
  5. Autonomic Nervous System
    • -Two motor neurons involved with autonomic ganglion
    • -Motor Unit- chain of TWO motor neurons (pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic)
    • -Pre= thin, light myelinated
    • -Post= thinner, unmyelinated
    • -ACh and NE = Neurotransmitters, receptors scattered throughout organs
    • -Targets function without neural input; there is a basic level of activity(ANS regulates by inc/dec)
  6. Somatic Nervous System
    • -One motor neuron runs from CNS to innervated muscle
    • -Motor Unit- single motor neuron and muscle fibers innervated
    • -Thick myelinated axons
    • -Excitatory only
    • -ACh=neurotransmitter at endplate
    • -Action dependent on motor nerves
  7. Sympathetic ANS
    • CNS Origin- Thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves "thoracolumbar"
    • Functions- "Fight or Flight", active functions- exercise
    • Neuron Length- Preganglionic- Short, Postgaglionic- Long
    • Location of prepost synapse- Proximal (near spinal cord)
    • Neurotransmitter- Preganglionic= ACh, Postganglionic= NE
    • Activation- More general activation, all at once
  8. Parasympathetic ANS
    • CNS Origin- Cranial nerves and sacral spinal nerves, "craniosacral"
    • Functions- Housekeeping (resting functions- digestion)
    • Neuron Length- Preganglionic= Long, Postganglionic= Short
    • Location of prepost synapse- Distal (near target organ)
    • Neurotrransmitter- Pre and Post= ACh
    • Activation- More selective activation of specific targets
  9. Sympathetic and systems
    • Respiratory- Dialtes bronchioles, decreased mucous in airways, deeper breaths
    • Cardiovascular- Increases HR, increases muscle contraction, strength, vaasoconstriction
    • Digestive- Decreases saliva, thickens secretion, decreases GI tract mobility
    • Sweat Glands- Increases sweat secretion
    • Energy Stores- Releases fuel (catabolic)
    • Exercise- Increases activity
  10. Parasympathetic and Systems
    • Respiratory- Constricts bronchioles, increaaes mucous in airways, shallower breaths
    • Cardiovascular- Decreases HR, decrease muscle contraction strength
    • Digestive- Increases saliva, thins secretion, increases GI tract motility
    • Sweat Glands- NONE
    • Energy Stores- Stores fuel (anabolic)
    • Exercise- Decreases Activity
  11. Adrenal Medulla
    • Adrenal gland located on superio side of kidney
    • Cortex= outer portion
    • Medulla= inner portion (sympathetic ganglion)
    • Controlled by sympathetic nervous system
    • Secretion- epinepherine (adrenaline), and norepinepherine (catecholamines)
    • Target- all sympathetic target organs
    • Effects- feinforces sumpathetic mass activation, hormonal effect lasts longer
    • Increases HR, dilate coronary vessels, increase mental alertness, increase resp and matabolic rate
  12. Visceral Sensory Neurons
    • General Visceral Neurons
    • Stretch, temp, chemicals, irritation
    • Most are free nerve endings
    • Referred Pain
    • Difficulty pinpointing signals
    • People often perceive that pain is comin from somatic areas like skin orouter body
  13. Control of ANS
    • Brain Stem and Spinal Cord
    • Reticular formation- most direct influence
    • Hypothalamus
    • Main integration center of ANS- directs parasympathetic and sympathetic activities
    • Amygalda (part of limbic system)
    • Stimulates sympathetic activity- fear
    • Cerebral Cortex
    • Can overcome responses with relaxation
  14. ANS Disorders
    • Autonomic dysreflexia (mass reflex reaction)
    • -Uncontrolled activation of ANS motor neurons
    • -Affects people with spinal cord injuries above T6 level
    • -When cord injury first happens- no reflexes, return later
    • -Initial trigger causes mass activity of reflexes- body spasms, colon and bladder empty, sweating, high BP
    • -Exact mechanism unknown