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What is stress? Give some examples.
Stress can be external/internal.
external: r'ship problems, financial worries, etc.
internal: muscle tension, trouble sleeping, headaches, etc.
*Everyone experiences stress at some level.
Who was Hans Selye? And what is he known for?
Made the popular model for understanding acute & chronic stress; general adaptive syndrome.
- 1st phase: alarm (initial reaction to stress)
- 2nd phase: resistance (increases)
- 3rd phase: exhaustion (resistance and resources decline)
What is Psychophysiological disorders?
organ dysfunction or physical symptoms that may be at least partly caused by psychological factors such as stress.
Inflammation or erosion of a part of the body, and often occur in the GI areas such as the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum.
*Effect men and women equally
*Appears to effect non-whites more than whites.
Define irritable bowel syndrome (ibs). Does it appear more in men or women?
chronic GI disorder involving alternating and recurrent constipation & diarrhea as well as abdominal pain.
*Appear much more in women than men. Many fear to have cancer.
50% of the leading causes of death in the US are linked to what behavioral/lifestyle patterns?
Smoking, poor eating habits, lack of exercise,
What does stress do to your body?
Speeds up aging
Supresses immune functions
chronic respiratory disease involving inflamed or constricted airways, tightening of the bronchial walls, hinders breathing.
*Rates are higher in children, women, & African Americans compared to the general population.
difficulties falling asleep & staying asleep during the night, and poor quality of sleep.
*Occurs in women at twice the rate for men.
*Unrelated to ethnicity but may occur more in people w/ less education.
Define Coronary Heart Disease.
narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood & oxygen to the heart.
*Accounts for 1 of 6 deaths per year. #1 in USA.
chemical msgers that transports a signal from glands to cells.
*Hormones wait to be rocognized by a target cell (their intended destination).
Stress & the immune response. What is the function of the immune system?
What are the immune systems branches?
Protect the body from foreign material by identifying and eliminating foreign materials (antigens)
Lymphocytes: B cells, humoral. T cells, cellular.
*Know the general framework of the immune system.
Immune system (cont.)What does the autoimmune disease entail?
- 1) imbalance in cell types
- 2) overactivity
- 3) attacks normal cells
*immune response is affected by psychological factors
Name some Psychosocial treatments of physical disorders.
Modifying behaviors to promote health.
(Life style changes that improve health)
Define stress inoculation.
Stress exposures that are not overwhelming while still being significant enough to activate emotional & physiological coping processes, may inoculate or steel the individual against later stress exposures.