Ch. 8 chem 32

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Ghoelix
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Ch. 8 chem 32
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2011-10-18 08:28:00
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chapter carbon chains organic
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chapter 8 carbon chains organic
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  1. What makes a compound organic?
    Any covalently bonded compound that contains carbon atoms as its primary structural element is called an organic compound.
  2. What do organic compounds have in common?
    They all have carbon as their main structural element, the all have hydrogen in them, most have oxygen, many have nonmetals.
  3. Every carbon atom in a Lewis structure should be surrounded by four lines.
    Every carbon atom in a Lewis structure should be surrounded by four lines.
  4. What is VSEPR?
    Valence shell electron pair repulsion model.

    For any carbon atom that is surreounded by four single bonds, the best arrangement of the electrons is a three sided pyramid called a tetrahedron. C at the center, Hs at the four corners. This forms a tetrahedral arrangement.
  5. Hydrogen atoms can never be located between two atoms, the are always at the end of something with only one, single bond.
    Hydrogen atoms can never be located between two atoms, the are always at the end of something with only one, single bond.
  6. What is a hydrocarbon?
    A hydro carbon is a molecule that contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms. They are the simplest of all organic compounds.
  7. What is an alkane?
    A hydrocarbon that contains only single bonds between carbon atoms.
  8. What are alkenes?
    Hydrocarbons that contain at least one double bond.
  9. What are alkynes?
    Hydrocarbons that contain a triple bond.
  10. What are aromatic compounds ( also called arenes )?
    Hydrocarbons who's carbon atoms form a ring of 6 carbon atoms connected alternatingly with double and single bonds.
  11. What are linear alkanes?
    hydrocarbons that contain a single continuous chain of carbon atoms, connected to one another by single bonds.
  12. What is a tetrahedral arrangement?
    When a carbon is surrounded by 4 single bonds it forms a tetrahedral arrangement, a 4-corner pyramid.
  13. Methane = CH4
    Methane = CH4
  14. Ethane = C2H6
    Ethane = C2H6
  15. Propane = C3H8
    • Propane = C3H8
    • CH3CH2CH3
  16. Butane = C4H10
    • Butane = C4H10
    • CH3(CH2)2CH3
  17. Pentane = C5H12
    • Pentane = C5H12
    • CH3(CH2)3CH3
  18. Hexane = C6H14
    • Hexane = C6H14
    • CH3(CH2)4CH3
  19. Heptane = C7H16
    • Heptane = C7H16
    • CH3(CH2)5CH3
  20. Octane = C8H18
    • Octane = C8H18
    • CH3(CH2)6CH3
  21. Nonane = C9H20
    • Nonane = C9H20
    • CH3(CH2)7CH3
  22. Decane = C10H22
    • Decane = C10H22
    • CH3(CH2)8CH3
  23. Alkanes ( hydrocarbons that only have single bonds, four of them ) all form tetrahedral arrangements with the carbon atom at the center.
    • Alkanes ( hydrocarbons that only have single bonds, four of them ) all
    • form tetrahedral arrangements with the carbon atom at the center.
  24. Linear alkanes with more than 2 carbons form a kind of zig-zag / valley-peak / rollercoaster form.
    /\/\
    • Linear alkanes with more than 2 carbons form a kind of zig-zag / valley-peak / rollercoaster form.
    • /\/\
  25. What is a branched alkane?
    An alkane ( hydrocarbon made of single bonds ) that does not form one continuous line of carbon atoms, some of the carbons branch off the line.
  26. What is an isomer?
    An isomer is a compound that has the same chemical formula as another compound but has a differenet atom arrangement, or different structure.
  27. What are constitutional isomers?
    Constitutional isomers are isomers that have different shapes. Same molecular formula, different shape.
  28. What is a cyclokane?
    A cyclokane is an alkane ( hydrocarbon with only single bonds ) with 3 to 6 carbons forming a ring.
  29. Cyclokanes are not quite the same as alkanes...
    Cyclocanes form a ring so there are no ends of the chain to add an extra H atom to. Because of this the cyclo- form of a linear hydrocarbon will always have 2 fewer hydrogens.
  30. Most cyclokanes are not flat.
    The Cs in a cyclokane are at the centers of tetrahedrons so the rings are not planar or flat across, they kind of buckle. Think of the chair formation, or, the wet dog formation.
  31. What are saturated hydrocarbons?
    Saturated hydrocarbons are cyclokanes and alkanes that have more hydrogen than carbon atoms than hydrocarbons that have double or triple bonds.
  32. What is the "principal carbon chain"?
    The longest continuous carbon chain in an alkane. Branching off of this are the alkyl groups.
  33. What are alkyl groups?
    A branch of atoms off a carbon chain. The alkyl group will branch off the principal carbon chain.
  34. How do you name alkane groups?
    Alkane groups will look sort of like some of the alkanes themselves, CH4, methane for example, except that the group will be missing an H where it is attatched to the principal chain. To name the group you would use the name of the alkane but change the "ane" to "yl". In this case the methane as an alkyl group is names "methyl".

    Ethane becomes ethyl, butane becomes butyl, etc.
  35. What are functional groups?
    A structural feature that is not found in saturated hydrocarbons.
  36. What is an alkene?
    A molecule with a carbon-carbon double bond. The double carbon bond is referred to as the alkene functional group.
  37. What is an alkyne?
    A molecule with a carbon-carbon triple bond. The carbon triple bond is referred to as the alkyne functional group.
  38. What is a triagonal planar arrangement?
    In an alkene where a carbon atom forms a double bond with another carbon the two hydrogens attatched to that first carbon will try to be as far apart from each other and the carbon atom itself
  39. What is a stereoisomer?
    Two compounds that differ only in the arrangement of the bonds around one or more atoms. Like cis and trans versions of alkenes.
  40. What is an aromatic ring?
    An aromatic ring is a cyclokene with six carbons forming a ring with 3 c-c single bonds and 3 c=c double bonds.
  41. How do the four classes of hydrocarbons differ in their chemical behavior?
    Alkanes are the least reactive, pretty much inert at room temperature.

    Alkenes and alkynes are the most reactive.

    Aromatic rings are intermidiate.

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