Biology

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Author:
timothyowens
ID:
108040
Filename:
Biology
Updated:
2011-10-11 15:14:16
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FE Biology
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FE questions for the Biology portion of exam
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  1. Lysozomes
    • - In Eukaryotic cells they specialize in digestion within the cell.
    • - They break lipid, carbohydrates and protiens into smaller particles that can be used by the rest of the cell.
  2. Chloroplasts
    • - Organelles located within plant cells and algae that conduct photosynthesis
    • -Chlorophyll is th green pigment that absorbs energy from sunlight during photosynthesis.
    • -During photosynthesis, the energy from the light is captured and eventually stored as sugar.
  3. DNA
    • - Deoxyribonucleic Acid
    • - Found within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
    • - Found within the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells
    • - contains the genetic sequence that is passed on during reproduction
    • - the sequence governs the functions of cells by determining the sequence of Amino Acids in each species unique protiens
  4. Mitochondria
    • -Specialized organelles that are the major site of energy production via aerobic respiration in Eukaryotic cells.
    • - They convert organic material to energy.
  5. Fick's Law
    • - The principal governing passiv diffusion in diulte slutions.
    • - The rate is proportional to the concentration gradient across membrane
    • - In case of living beings passive diffusion affected by:
    • 1. Lipid soluability increase -> transport rate increas
    • 2. Molecule size decrease -> transport rate increase
    • 3. Ionization degree decrease -> transport rate increase
  6. Hematoxicity 9 pts
    • 1. Platelets - for blood clotting
    • 2. Plasma - noncellular: protiens, nutrients, waste products, gasses
    • 3. Destroy Red Blood Cells: Benzene, Nitrobenzene, Napheline, Methylene Chloride, Lead, insecticides
    • 4. Bone marrow: Benzene, Pestacides, carbon tetrachloride, ionizing radiation,
    • 5. Kidneys stimulate bone marrow: Mercury, Cadmium, other toxins
    • 6. Blood capacity to carry O2: CO2...
    • 7. Overestimulate Aorta: Hydrogen Cyanide, Hydrogen Sulfide, \
    • 8. Suppress production of stem and white blood cells: Benzene, Carbon TetraChloride, TNT
    • 9. Leukemia ( high number of white blood cells) - Benzene
  7. Hepatoxicity - 3
    • 1. Liver Cell Damage: Hexavalent Chromium, Arsenic.
    • 2. Cirrosis of the liver ( damage and death of liver cells ) Carbon TetraChloride, Alcohol
    • 3. Hepatitus ( Inflamation of the liver ) - chemicals or viruses
  8. Cardiotoxicity - 3
    • 1. The heart rate may change and the strength of contractions may diminish
    • 2. Certain metals can affect the contractions of the heart and interfere with cell metablolism.
    • 3. Carbon Mononoxide can result in a decrease in the oxygen supply, causing improper f(x) of nervous system controling the heart
  9. RNA
    • 1. ribonucleic acid
    • 2. found both within the nucleus and in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells'
    • 3. most RNA molecules involved in protien synthesis
    • a. mRNA - messenger - DNA sequence to rest of cells
    • b. rRNA - ribosomal - part of ribosomes????????
    • c. tRNA - carries amino acids to the ribosomes for protien synthesis
  10. pActive Diffusion
    • - transfer forced by pressure gradient or "piggy-back" function
    • 1. Membrane pumping - permease (cell membrane protiens) transport substances against passive diffusion.
    • 2. Endocytosis - process where cells absorb a material by surrounding with membrane
    • 3. Exocytosis - a secretory vesicle expels material from within to outside of the cell.
    • * Ecoli - Escheria coli and many other bacteria use water soluable protiens to move sugar and amino acids.
  11. Cell Growth Rate Equation
    • 1. Mu = k(1-x/x-infinity) where x-infinity = max population of the environment, carrying capacity.
    • - k = logistic growth rate constant
    • - x= number of organisms at time t
    • 2. therefore dx/dt = kx(1- x/x-infiniti) and integration with respect to t:
    • - x = x0e^kt / (( 1 - (x0/x-infinity))(1-e^kt)
  12. Microorganism Kingdoms
    • - Based on structural and functional differences
    • a) Animals - rotifers and crusteceans
    • b) Plants - mosses and ferns
    • c) Protista - bacteria, algae , fungi and protozoa
    • * Bacteroa and Protozoa of the kingdom Protista make up major group used in secondary treatment of waste water.
  13. Facilitated Diffusion
    - Transfer during which a permease or membrane enzyme carrys the substance across the membrane.
  14. Permeability ( cm/sec units )
    • - of a molecule across a membrane of thicness x is
    • pKa (diffusion coefficient in water ) cm^2/sec
    • x cm.
  15. Cell Membrane
    • 1. Consists of a double phospholipid layer - [ many single cell organisms have flagela ]
    • 2. ...in which the polar ends of the moleculres point to the outer and inner surfaces on fh membrane and nonpolar ends point to center.
    • 3. Contains protien, cholesterol, and glycoprotiens,
    • 4. Plant cells have cell walls made of carbohydrates
  16. Cytoplasm 4
    • 1. contains all the contents of the cell ofther than the nucleus
    • 2. "Cytosol" is the watery solution of the cytoplasm
    • 3. It contains disolved glucose and other nutrients, salts, enzymes, carbon dioxide and oxygen
    • 4. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm also contains organelles.
  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum 3
    • 1. this is one example of an organelle found in a cell ( Eukaryotic cell )
    • 2. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum has Submicroscopic organelles called " ribosomes" attached to it.
    • 3. Amino Acids are bound together at the ribosome surfaces to form protiens
  18. Golgi Aparatus 3
    • 1. is an organelle found in most Eukarotic cells.
    • 2. It looks like a stack of flattened sacks
    • 3. The Golgi Apparatus is responsible for accepting materials ( mostly protozoa ) making modifications and packaging the material for transport to specific areas of the cell.
  19. Partition Coefficient, KA 2
    • 1. the relative soluability of the solute in lipid to its soluability in water.
    • 2. can be used to describe the effect of lipid soluability on Transport:
    • a) K=Concentration in lipid/Concentration in H2O
    • b) pKa = log10 ((Concentration in lipid) / Concentration in H2O))
  20. Henderson - Hasselback Equation
    • 1. The pH of a solution effects the Partition Coefficient pKa????
    • 2. for weak acids and weak base solutions:
    • a) pKa - pH = log10(nonionized form / ionized form) = log10 (HA / A ) [ Weakly Acidic ]
    • b) = log10( ionized form / nonionized form ) = log10 (HB+ / B ) [ Weakly Basic ]
  21. Organismal Growth Phases 5
    • 1. Lag phase - begins at inoculation adaptation to new environment. New enzymes that?? change solute concentration, temperture. length of phase depends on changed conditions
    • 2. Exponential ( or logarithmic ) cell growth, mu= 1/x dx/dt where x = cell organism number or concentration??
    • 3. Declining Growth - -1 or > nutrients depleted or wast product accumulation slow cell growth.
    • 4. Stationary - 0 growth rate = net growth
    • 5. Death - Death rate > growth rate
  22. Pulminory Toxicidy 7
    • 1. Nasal Pasage and Nerve Cell Damage
    • 2. Nasal Cancer
    • 3. Bronchitis - excessive mucous secretion
    • 4. Pulminary Edema - excessive accumulation of fluid in aveoli
    • FES:
    • 5. Fibrosis - increased connective tissue
    • 6. Silicosis - deposition of connective tissue around aveoli
    • 7. Emphaysema - inability of lungs to expand and contract
  23. Prokaryote
    • A cellular organism that does not have a distict nucleus
    • Examples: a. Bactieria
    • b. Blue-Green Algae
  24. Eukaryote
    • An organism composed of one or more cells containing visibly evident nuclei and organelles ( structures with specialized functions )
    • Examples found in: a. Protozoa
    • b. fungi
    • c. plants
    • d. animals
  25. Vacuoles 4
    • 1. Found in some eukaryotic cells.
    • 2. Functions: storage, separation of harmful materials, maintaiin cellular fluid balance
    • 3. Tonoplast membrane separates from cell
    • 4. Most mature plant cells contain a large central vacuole that occupies the largest volume of any single structure within the cell.

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