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- - In Eukaryotic cells they specialize in digestion within the cell.
- - They break lipid, carbohydrates and protiens into smaller particles that can be used by the rest of the cell.
- - Organelles located within plant cells and algae that conduct photosynthesis
- -Chlorophyll is th green pigment that absorbs energy from sunlight during photosynthesis.
- -During photosynthesis, the energy from the light is captured and eventually stored as sugar.
- - Deoxyribonucleic Acid
- - Found within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
- - Found within the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells
- - contains the genetic sequence that is passed on during reproduction
- - the sequence governs the functions of cells by determining the sequence of Amino Acids in each species unique protiens
- -Specialized organelles that are the major site of energy production via aerobic respiration in Eukaryotic cells.
- - They convert organic material to energy.
- - The principal governing passiv diffusion in diulte slutions.
- - The rate is proportional to the concentration gradient across membrane
- - In case of living beings passive diffusion affected by:
- 1. Lipid soluability increase -> transport rate increas
- 2. Molecule size decrease -> transport rate increase
- 3. Ionization degree decrease -> transport rate increase
Hematoxicity 9 pts
- 1. Platelets - for blood clotting
- 2. Plasma - noncellular: protiens, nutrients, waste products, gasses
- 3. Destroy Red Blood Cells: Benzene, Nitrobenzene, Napheline, Methylene Chloride, Lead, insecticides
- 4. Bone marrow: Benzene, Pestacides, carbon tetrachloride, ionizing radiation,
- 5. Kidneys stimulate bone marrow: Mercury, Cadmium, other toxins
- 6. Blood capacity to carry O2: CO2...
- 7. Overestimulate Aorta: Hydrogen Cyanide, Hydrogen Sulfide, \
- 8. Suppress production of stem and white blood cells: Benzene, Carbon TetraChloride, TNT
- 9. Leukemia ( high number of white blood cells) - Benzene
Hepatoxicity - 3
- 1. Liver Cell Damage: Hexavalent Chromium, Arsenic.
- 2. Cirrosis of the liver ( damage and death of liver cells ) Carbon TetraChloride, Alcohol
- 3. Hepatitus ( Inflamation of the liver ) - chemicals or viruses
Cardiotoxicity - 3
- 1. The heart rate may change and the strength of contractions may diminish
- 2. Certain metals can affect the contractions of the heart and interfere with cell metablolism.
- 3. Carbon Mononoxide can result in a decrease in the oxygen supply, causing improper f(x) of nervous system controling the heart
- 1. ribonucleic acid
- 2. found both within the nucleus and in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells'
- 3. most RNA molecules involved in protien synthesis
- a. mRNA - messenger - DNA sequence to rest of cells
- b. rRNA - ribosomal - part of ribosomes????????
- c. tRNA - carries amino acids to the ribosomes for protien synthesis
- - transfer forced by pressure gradient or "piggy-back" function
- 1. Membrane pumping - permease (cell membrane protiens) transport substances against passive diffusion.
- 2. Endocytosis - process where cells absorb a material by surrounding with membrane
- 3. Exocytosis - a secretory vesicle expels material from within to outside of the cell.
- * Ecoli - Escheria coli and many other bacteria use water soluable protiens to move sugar and amino acids.
Cell Growth Rate Equation
- 1. Mu = k(1-x/x-infinity) where x-infinity = max population of the environment, carrying capacity.
- - k = logistic growth rate constant
- - x= number of organisms at time t
- 2. therefore dx/dt = kx(1- x/x-infiniti) and integration with respect to t:
- - x = x0e^kt / (( 1 - (x0/x-infinity))(1-e^kt)
- - Based on structural and functional differences
- a) Animals - rotifers and crusteceans
- b) Plants - mosses and ferns
- c) Protista - bacteria, algae , fungi and protozoa
- * Bacteroa and Protozoa of the kingdom Protista make up major group used in secondary treatment of waste water.
- Transfer during which a permease or membrane enzyme carrys the substance across the membrane.
Permeability ( cm/sec units )
- - of a molecule across a membrane of thicness x is
- pKa (diffusion coefficient in water ) cm^2/sec
- x cm.
- 1. Consists of a double phospholipid layer - [ many single cell organisms have flagela ]
- 2. ...in which the polar ends of the moleculres point to the outer and inner surfaces on fh membrane and nonpolar ends point to center.
- 3. Contains protien, cholesterol, and glycoprotiens,
- 4. Plant cells have cell walls made of carbohydrates
- 1. contains all the contents of the cell ofther than the nucleus
- 2. "Cytosol" is the watery solution of the cytoplasm
- 3. It contains disolved glucose and other nutrients, salts, enzymes, carbon dioxide and oxygen
- 4. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm also contains organelles.
Endoplasmic Reticulum 3
- 1. this is one example of an organelle found in a cell ( Eukaryotic cell )
- 2. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum has Submicroscopic organelles called " ribosomes" attached to it.
- 3. Amino Acids are bound together at the ribosome surfaces to form protiens
Golgi Aparatus 3
- 1. is an organelle found in most Eukarotic cells.
- 2. It looks like a stack of flattened sacks
- 3. The Golgi Apparatus is responsible for accepting materials ( mostly protozoa ) making modifications and packaging the material for transport to specific areas of the cell.
Partition Coefficient, KA 2
- 1. the relative soluability of the solute in lipid to its soluability in water.
- 2. can be used to describe the effect of lipid soluability on Transport:
- a) K=Concentration in lipid/Concentration in H2O
- b) pKa = log10 ((Concentration in lipid) / Concentration in H2O))
Henderson - Hasselback Equation
- 1. The pH of a solution effects the Partition Coefficient pKa????
- 2. for weak acids and weak base solutions:
- a) pKa - pH = log10(nonionized form / ionized form) = log10 (HA / A ) [ Weakly Acidic ]
- b) = log10( ionized form / nonionized form ) = log10 (HB+ / B ) [ Weakly Basic ]
Organismal Growth Phases 5
- 1. Lag phase - begins at inoculation adaptation to new environment. New enzymes that?? change solute concentration, temperture. length of phase depends on changed conditions
- 2. Exponential ( or logarithmic ) cell growth, mu= 1/x dx/dt where x = cell organism number or concentration??
- 3. Declining Growth - -1 or > nutrients depleted or wast product accumulation slow cell growth.
- 4. Stationary - 0 growth rate = net growth
- 5. Death - Death rate > growth rate
Pulminory Toxicidy 7
- 1. Nasal Pasage and Nerve Cell Damage
- 2. Nasal Cancer
- 3. Bronchitis - excessive mucous secretion
- 4. Pulminary Edema - excessive accumulation of fluid in aveoli
- 5. Fibrosis - increased connective tissue
- 6. Silicosis - deposition of connective tissue around aveoli
- 7. Emphaysema - inability of lungs to expand and contract
- A cellular organism that does not have a distict nucleus
- Examples: a. Bactieria
- b. Blue-Green Algae
- An organism composed of one or more cells containing visibly evident nuclei and organelles ( structures with specialized functions )
- Examples found in: a. Protozoa
- b. fungi
- c. plants
- d. animals
- 1. Found in some eukaryotic cells.
- 2. Functions: storage, separation of harmful materials, maintaiin cellular fluid balance
- 3. Tonoplast membrane separates from cell
- 4. Most mature plant cells contain a large central vacuole that occupies the largest volume of any single structure within the cell.