HHPK Test 2

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  1. Emergency Care Procedures
    • 1. Determine if it is safe to enter the scene
    • 2. Check ABC's (airway, breathing and circulation)
    • 3. Control severe bleeding
    • 4. If a poisoning has occurred, try to determine the source of it
    • 5. Do not move a victim unless his or her life is in danger by leaving them where they are
    • 6. Send a student for help or use your cell phone to call 911
    • 7. Do not attempt procedures you are not qualified to do
  2. Call Emergency Medical Services
    • 1. Give the location of the emergency including the specific address
    • 2. The exact phone number being used to make the call
    • 3. The name of the individual initiating the call
    • 4. The exact nature of what happened
    • 5. The number, age and condition of each victim
    • 6. What is currently being done to aid each victim
  3. After the Priorities are Taken Care of in an Emergency Situation . . .
    • 1. Tell the child a reason for each thing you do. It is important to provide encouragement and reassurance
    • 2. Move other students away from the scene to protect from confusion and promote calm
    • 3. Help the child maintain a normal body temperature. Shade or cool towels for heat and blankets or coats for cold weather
  4. Good Samaritan Law
    Texas is 1 of 40 states that has this law

    No person who administers 1st Aid in good faith is liable for civil damages unless such acts are willfully or deliberately negligent. If you are not a trained medical person who receives pay for such services, you cannot be held responsible if complications arise. The worst thing you can do is nothing.
  5. Types of Open Wounds
    • Scrape (abrasion) - damages outer layer of skin, little or no bleeding, but can get infected
    • Cut (incision) - can damage nerves and large blood vessels and produce heavy bleeding
    • Puncture - made when a pointed object pierces the skin. Potential for internal bleeding and infection. Do not remove a large object if the object is deep.
    • Avulsion - a body part is severed from the body. Send the severed part to the hospital packed in ice.
  6. 1st Aid for Open Wounds
    • 1. Place a clean thick cloth over the wound
    • 2. Use the palm of your hand and press firmly. If blood soaks through, place additional layers of cloth over the first
    • 3. Apply pressure until the bleeding stops
    • 4. If the bleeding will not subside, use the Pressure Point Technique (use the heel of the hand to press the femoral artery in the abdomen against the hip bone or the brachial artery inside the upper arm)
  7. Shock
    Shock occurs when there is not an adequate supply of blood to the vital organs.
  8. Signs of Shock
    • confused behavior
    • very fast or slow pulse or breathing
    • trembling or weakness in arms and legs
    • pale or clammy skin or lips
    • blueish lips or fingenails
    • Enlarged pupils
  9. Treatment of Shock
    • 1. Keep the victim lying down
    • 2. Help the victim maintain a normal body temperature
    • 3. Never give food or drink
    • 4. Unless you suspect head injury, elevate the feet
  10. Poison
    • 1. Keep all cleaners locked up and out of reach of students
    • 2. If poisoning is suspected, look for and save the container
    • 3. Call 911 and Poison Control Center if you can do immediately
    • 4. All poisons should not be vomited up for fear of burning the esophagus
  11. Bee Stings
    • 1. Use a piece of cardboard or other flat sharp edge object and scrape against the stinger until you pull out the venom sac
    • 2. Tweezers may rupture the venom sac
    • 3. Wash the area thoroughly with soap and water
    • 4. If severe swelling occurs, send for immediate help. Ice will reduce swelling
    • 5. For your own family, Benadryl will reduce swelling but teachers cannot use it
  12. Nose Bleeds
    • 1. Apply direct pressure by pressing on the bleeding nostril using the thumb and forefinger
    • 2. Sit the victim down and lean the head forward to prevent blood from draining down the throat
    • 3. Apply a cold towel to the face and nose
    • 4. If bleeding does not subside in 10 minutes, send for medical help
  13. Sprain
    a stretching or tearing of ligament tissue around a joint
  14. Strain
    a stretching or tearing of muscle tissue
  15. Treatment of sprains and strains: RICE
    • R- Rest - stay off the affected area as much as possible
    • I - Ice - apply ice for 20 min. 4x's a day for 24 hours
    • C - Compression - wrap the injury with elastic bandage but not too tight
    • E - Elevation - raise the injured are above the heart
  16. Fainting
    The temporary loss of consciousness brought on by a reduced supply of blood to the brain.
  17. Treatment of Fainting
    • 1. Lay them on their back
    • 2. Elevate the legs 8-12 inches
    • 3. Loosen any tight clothing
    • 4. Sponge the person's face with cool water
  18. Burns
    • 1st degree - superficial involves the top layer of skin (sunburn)
    • 2nd degree - characterized by blisters
    • 3rd degree - destroys all layers of skin, looks brown or black
  19. Treatment of Burns
    • 1st degree - use wet towels to cool the burn - appy aloe vera
    • 2nd degree - soak in cool water or use wet towels
    • 3rd degree - cover with a dry sterile cloth to prevent infection
  20. Heat Cramps
    Characterized by muscle cramps, heavy sweating, headaches and dizziness
  21. Treatment of heat cramps
    • Move the victim out of the heat
    • Gently massage and stretch the muscle to relieve the spasm
    • Give sips of a commercial sports drink if available to replace salt and water
    • Do not give salt tablets
  22. Choking
    • 3,000 American's choke to death each year
    • The universal distress signal for choking is clutching the neck
    • Use the Heimlich Maneuver if someone is choking
    • - just above the navel
    • - strong hand on the outside
    • - pull in and up
    • - if the person is too large perform CPR
  23. Dental Emergencies
    • If a tooth is knocked out:
    • 1. Handle the tooth by the crown and not the root
    • 2. Place the tooth in a glass or zip lock bag filled with water or milk
    • 3. Apply gauze to the wound and have the child bite down on it
    • 4. A dentist must be seen immediately
  24. Fractures
    • 1. Keep injured part from moving
    • 2. Never attempt to reset a bone
    • 3. Send for medical help immediately
    • 4. Keep the victim comfortable
    • 5. be prepared to treat for shock
    • 6. if a student must be moved, splint the injured area
  25. Eye Injuries
    • 1. Wash any chemical with plenty of water for 15 min
    • 2. Never remove an embedded object, cover with a pad
    • 3. Do not allow a child to rub his/her eye if a foreign object gets in the eye
    • 4. A small foreign object on the eyelid or white part of the eye can be removed with a wet sterile gauze
  26. Splinters
    • If a splinter can be grasped by tweezers, remove it and wash the area with soap and water
    • Never use a needle to dig out a splinter but cover the are and notify parents
  27. Seizure Disorders
    • Epilepsy is a nervous system condition in which seizures occur
    • Petit Mal - may not even be noticed by the teacher - lip smacking, fluttering of the eyelids, or a glassy stare for 5 to 10 sec.
    • Grand Mal - the individual most likely will fall, muscles will tighten and relax in jerking motions
    • 1. May last from several seconds to 5 min.
    • 2. Move hard or sharp objects away from the victim - do not restrain or force anything between the teeth
    • 3. Turn the victim on their side and place something soft under their head
    • 4. After seizure, the child may be disoriented or fall asleep and lose bladder control
    • 5. Move other students to a different location until you can et the child to the clinic
  28. CPR
    • Check for unresponsiveness
    • Adult: 30 compressions and 2 breaths
    • Call 911 then CPR
    • Child: 2 min CPR before you call 911 (ages 1-8) your mouth goes over child's mouth and nose, one hand compressions
    • Infant: 2 breaths - small and gentle
    • 30 gentle chest compressions
  29. Reporting Abuse
    • Any suspected child abuse or neglect must be reported orally or in writing within 48 hours!!
    • Reports can be made to:
    • - Child Protective Services (CPS)
    • - Texas Education Agency
    • - Local or state law enforcement
    • - Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Service
    • School officials are prohibited from denying an investigator's request to interview students
    • School officials are prohibited from requiring the presence of a parent or school administrator during the interview
    • School officials may not be prosecuted for referrals regardless of the outcome
    • In a school setting referrals are made to:
    • School nurse
    • Counselor
    • Administrator
  30. Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value (FMNV)
    • An elememtary school campus may not serve or provide access to FMNV at any time on school premises during the school day
    • Such food or beverages may not be sold or given away on school premises by any person
    • Vending machines may be restocked with water, juices, or sports drinks not prohibited by this policy
    • Students may bring FMNV from home as long as they do not sell or make these items available to other students
    • Parental permission does not relieve the school from compliance
    • A school has three days of exemption. These days can be determined by each individual school district.
  31. My Pyramid
    How many cups of fruit should you eat in a day?
    2 cups
  32. Dietary Refernce Intake (DRI) Value
    • Protien: 10-35%
    • Fat: 20-25%
    • Complex Carbohydrates: 45-65%
  33. Nutrients
    Provide energy, build and repair body tissue and regulate body processes
  34. Carbohydrates
    • the body's preferred source of energy
    • (veggies, pasta, beans, potatoes, nuts and fruits)
  35. Protien
    • The second source of energy for the body
    • Made up of building blocks called amino acids - your body can make 11 of the amino acids but 9 must come from your diet which are called essential amino acids found in fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese and yogurt
    • Necessary to build strong teeth, bones, skin, blood and tissue
  36. Carbohydrate Consumption
    There has been a significan rise in the consumption of simple carbohydrates over the last 100 years
  37. Fat
    • The last source of energy the body will use
    • Body fat is a source of stored energy when more calories are consumed than the body needs
    • Fat carries vitamins A, D, E, & K into your blood
    • Fat is found in butter, margerine, meat, poultry, chocolate, ice cream and donuts
    • To calculate the amount of fat you need in your diet, divide your ideal body weight in half
    • Saturated fats allow the body to absorb cholesterol which builds up in the arteries
  38. Fiber
    • helps move waste through your digestive system (vegetables & fruits, rye and wheat breads,
    • A lack of fiber develobs a risk of colon cancer
  39. Minerals called Electrolytes
    • Sodium, Chlorine and Potassium
    • The intake of water and electrolytes must be equal to the amount eliminated in persperation, urine and bowel movements
    • Can be replenished by sports drinks, water, bananas, orages and other fruits
    • An in-balance of electrolytes causes confused behavior, muscle cramps and can cause vital organs to shut down
  40. Water
    • The body's most essential nutrient. Your body is about 70% water
    • Most people need about 10 cups or 5 glasses of water per day
  41. Vitamins
    • Fat soluable - A, D, E, K
    • Water soluable - B & C
    • There is no scientific evidence that natural vitamins are more beneficial to the body than synthetic ones
  42. Food additives are listed and are added to:
    • lengthen storage life
    • give flavor or color
    • maintain texture
    • control acidity
    • help age foods such as cheese
  43. Food additives add nutrients
    • Enriched - nutrients lost in processing are added back in
    • Fortified - adds nutrients not normally present in that food. ie. Vitamin D in Milk
    • To check to see if an additive is safe, check the USDA's list of Generally Recognized as Safe
  44. Label Terms
    • Light - calories have been reduced by 1/2, fat and salt by 1/2
    • Free - a product can contain no amount or only a negligible amount of fat, salt, or sugars
    • Fresh - raw unprocessed and have never been frozen or heated
    • Natural - used only for meat or poultry - minimally processed with no artificial or synthetic ingredients
    • Low Fat - must contain 3 grams of fat or less per serving
    • Low Calorie - must contain no more than 120 calories
  45. Beware of the "Quick Fix"
    • Wearing a rubber suit simply produces dehydration
    • Massages make fate feel better
    • Vibrating belts may increase blood flow but do not reduce the fat content
    • Most weight loss pills are diuretics - remove water
    • Investigate any quick loss schemes
    • A. ads solely upon the testimony of a famous person
    • B. promises to lose large amounts of weight in a short time
    • C. Solutions to lose weight involving products other than regular food
    • Money back guarantee
  46. Myths used to encourage use of health/food supplements
    • Vitamins and mineral deficiencies are not common
    • Most diseases are caused by faulty diet
    • Nearly all disease can be prevented or corrected nutritionally
    • It is difficult to get the nourishment you need from orinary foods
  47. Cylcle of Dieting
    Start dieting -> Initial Motivation -> Positive Results -> Trouble with compliance -> Fail with diet and blame self -> Regain Inspiration -> Start dieting . . .
  48. Problems with fad diets
    • Weight loss is often water loss
    • Supplements may be dangerous
    • Diet may lack essential nutrients
    • Netabolism may slow down if caloric intake is very low
    • Most (if not all) simply do not work for people long term
  49. Unsuccessful Diets
    • 50% regain all weight witin 2 years
    • 5-10% keep weight off permenantly
  50. Effective Weight Loss
    • combination of diet and exercise
    • programs such as Weight Watchers that help you watch your intake
    • don't eat late at night
    • Drink a lot of water
    • Avoid a large use of diet drinks
    • Use sweets in moderation
    • To lose weight, you must burn more calories than you take in
  51. 1 pound of fat = ______ calories
    3500 calories
  52. How do you prevent cancer?
    • Stop smoking
    • Control your weight
    • Maintain a high fiber/low fat diet
    • Drink alcohol in moderation
    • Use sunscreen with SPF of 15 or higher - the general rule is to multiply the time it normally takes to sunburn times the SPF & pick a sunscreen that blocks both UVB and UVA rays
    • Avoid tanning beds
  53. Skin Cancer Signs - ABCD
    • A - Asymmetry: one half unlike the other
    • B - Border irregularity: does it have an uneven, scalloped edge rather than a clearly defined border?
    • C - Color variation: is the color uniform
    • D - Diameter: larger than 1/4 inch
Card Set
HHPK Test 2
Coach Grant's HHPK Test 2 TAMU-Commerce
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