Anatomy 12

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Author:
matt75
ID:
10805
Filename:
Anatomy 12
Updated:
2010-03-21 14:06:25
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anatomy
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Description:
chapter 12
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  1. Microalgia
    • Smallest least abundant neuroglia
    • Phagocytes, thorny looking
  2. Ependymal Cells
    • Simple epithelial layer
    • Lines centralof brain cavity and spinal cord
  3. Oligodendrocytes
    • Produce myelin sheath around nerve cell axons
    • Fewer branches than astrocytes
  4. Satellite Cells
    Surround cell bodies in ganglia
  5. Schwann Cells
    • Surround axons in PNS
    • Produce myelin sheath
  6. Nerves
    • Bundle of neurons outside CNS(in PNS)
    • Naked eye can see
    • Contain both sensory and motor neurons
    • Some sensory/motor only
  7. Connective Tissue
    • Hold neurons together
    • -Endoneurium- surrounds each axon (loose CT)
    • -Perioleurium- surrounds bundle of axons (fascicle)
    • -Epineurium- surrounds entire nerve (bunch of fascicles)
  8. Reflex Arcs
    • Chains of neurons- create reflexes
    • Unlearned and involuntary
    • Somatic or visceral
  9. 5 components of Reflex Arcs
    • Receptor- stimulus acts
    • Sensory neuron-signal to CNS
    • Integration Center- 1 or more synapses
    • Motor Neuron- Impulse from integration center
    • Effector- muscle/gland that responds
  10. Monosynaptic
    • 1 synapse involved
    • Fastest feflex
    • Ex. knee jerk
  11. Polysynaptic
    • One or more interneurons part of reflex pathway
    • Most conatin interneuron
    • -3 neuron reflexes
  12. Gray Matter (CNS)
    • Cell bodies
    • H shaped in spinal cord
  13. White Matter (CNS)
    • Axons (after myelinated)
    • Tracts=bundles of axons
  14. Disorders of Nervous System
    • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
    • -mostcommon in young adults
    • -progressive-destroys patches of myelin
    • -cause not well understood- autoimmune
  15. Nervous System
    • Master control and communications center
    • Communicate via electrical signals
  16. 3 overlapping functions of nervous system
    • Sensory receptors monitoring changes
    • Integration (processing and interpreting)
    • Response (motor ouotput)
  17. Somatic
    Structures external to
  18. Visceral
    organs
  19. 4 combinations
    • Somatic sensory- Both part of proprioception
    • Somatic motor

    • Visceral sensory- Voluntary
    • Visceral motor

    ANS- Involuntary
  20. Neurons- Cell body
    • One nucleus
    • Group of cell bodies in CNS= nucleus
    • Group of cell bodies in PNS= ganglia
    • Metabolic center of neuron
  21. Neurons- Dendrites
    • Branched processes
    • Extend from cytoplasm
    • Receive impulses and conduct impulses to cell body
  22. Neurons- Axons
    • Conduct impulses away from cell body
    • Myelinated or large= increase electrical conduction speed
    • Lengths vary: have axon terminals at end(bulbs)
    • Is a cytoplasmic extension from cell body
  23. Neurons Synapses
    • Controls info one neuron to the next
    • Presynaptic towards synapse
    • Postsynaptic away from synapse
    • Can be excitatory or inhibitory
  24. Neurons Structural
    • Multipolar
    • Bipolar
    • Unipolar
  25. Multipolar
    Most of body's neurons- many dendrites and an axon
  26. Bipolar
    Processes extend from two sides of the body(rare, sensory)
  27. Unipolar
    One process, divides like a T(sensory neurons)
  28. Neurons- Functional
    • Sensory (Afferent)- to CNS
    • Motor (Efferent)- Away from CNS
    • Interneurons (association neurons)- between sensory and motor only in CNS
  29. Neuroglia
    • Central cell body and branching processes
    • Outer neurons # 10-1 in CNS
    • 1/2 brains mass
    • Support
  30. Neuroglia in CNS
    Astrocytes, microalgia, ependymal cells
  31. Astrocytes
    • Most abundant
    • Key in blood brain barrier
    • Regulate passage of molecule, blood to brain
    • Only allows small molecules to brain
  32. Neuroglia in PNS
    Satellite cells and schwann cells

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