Card Set Information

2011-10-11 12:57:43

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    The use of an internal form called “Aircraft Movement Authorization” is appended to thecomputer-generated flight plan to release Part 91 flight movements. These are typically issued formaintenance ferry flights and aircraft delivery flights in lieu of a FAR 121 Flight Release.
  2. Flight Control will issue a Flight Briefing Package (FBP) and file the Air Traffic Control (ATC) flightplan except when requested not to. The weight and balance will be provided by the
    gateway.When an “Aircraft Movement Authorization” cannot be produced using Lido, Flight Control willissue an “Aircraft Movement
  3. 02.01.03 EXEMPTION 8658PARTIAL EXEMPTION FROM FAR 121.619Exemption 8658 is re-addressed this year because it
    became an item of interest by the FAA due tothe fact that the FOM did not represent the exemption in its entirety. Paragraph (1) mandatory PilotReports was not included in the FOM along with other significant information. The exemption isrepresented in its entirety below in the form of OpSpec C355.
  4. a. The certificate holder is authorized to dispatch flights in accordance with Grant of exemption(s)listed in Table 1 below, as may be amended, which grant(s) relief from 14 CFR Sections121.619(a)(1) and (2) for domestic operations. All operations
    under the exemption are subjectto compliance with the conditions and limitations set forth in the exemption and this operationsspecification.
  5. b. In accordance with the provisions and limitations of the exemption(s) listed in Table 1 below,the certificate holder is allowed to reduce the destination airport weather requirement of Section121.619(a)(1) and (2) for designating an alternate airport from the current CFR requirement of at
    least 2000-foot ceilings and at least 3 miles visibility to at least 1000-foot ceilings and the visibilitylisted in Table 1 below based on the applicable exemption and the limitations and provisions ofthis operations specification.
  6. c. This authorization is applicable to only those destination airports within
    he 48 contiguousUnited States.
  7. e. All operations under this authorization must be conducted while using
    a qualified dispatcher.
  8. 1) The certificate holder must provide a copy of pertinent parts of the exemption anddocumentation, with respect to the conditions and limitations of this operations specification,acceptable to the POI, to each dispatcher, and Pilot-In-Command (PIC) who conductsoperations under the exemption.
    (2) Each dispatcher must have a computer monitoring system or systems to display the locationof each flight and current significant weather that is capable of showing the following:(a) The aircraft’s present position updated at least once every three minutes(b) Overlays of weather radar returns updated at least once every five minutes(c) Specific routing of the aircraft as assigned by ATC and actual filed flight plan routing(d) Other airborne aircraft including those of other operators(e) Planned and actual fuel at regular intervals along the route and the difference betweenplanned and actual fuel.(f) Automatically alerts the dispatcher to a special weather update, changes in weatherreports, forecasts and/or other significant weather-related reports which can beexpeditiously relayed to the flight crews while conducting operations under thisexemption.(3) Each dispatcher must have the capability to access the services of a qualified meteorologistapproved by the POI or the certificate holder must have an approved EWINS program.(4) Each dispatcher must have the capability to expeditiously recompute projected arrival fuelfrom a “point aloft” to the intended destination in the event conditions, including thoserequired to be reported in subparagraph l, occur that negatively impact the flight.(5) Each dispatcher must have data available that will show aircraft status, including the aircraftcapability to conduct CAT I, CAT II or CAT III operations as applicable to the exemptionbeing used.(6) The dispatch release will contain a statement for each flight dispatched under this exemptionsuch as: ALTN WEATHER EXEMPTION APPLIED. REFERENCE (APPROPRIATEDOCUMENT SUCH AS FOM, GOM, etc). The
  9. f. The reporting requirements of the flight crews listed in subparagraph l., Mandatory Pilot Reports,and the required dispatch flight planning and tracking systems in subparagraph e. must be usedto determine
    the feasibility of dispatching the flight under this exemption and/or continuing theflight after dispatch.
  10. g. Approved Procedures. If the use of these systems, reports or the occurrence of other factorsindicate that the conditions under which the flight was originally dispatched have changed and maynegatively impact the flight, the dispatcher and flight crew must re-evaluate the continued operationof the flight using approved procedures, and if necessary, agree on an alternate plan as soon aspracticable after the occurrence of any of the following:
    (1) Enroute holding or delaying vectors, airspeed changes, altitude changes or re-routings;(2) Unplanned or sustained use of deicing and anti-icing systems or other factors directlyrelating to fuel consumption that may have a negative effect on trip fuel requirements.(3) The deterioration of destination weather below a 1000-foot ceiling and 2-mile visibility ifusing an exemption that requires at least 3 statute miles visibility as listed in Table 1.(4) The deterioration of destination weather below a 1000-foot ceiling and 1-mile visibility ifusing an exemption that requires for at least 2 statute miles visibility as listed in Table 1.
  11. h. If granted an exemption that allows for 1000-foot ceiling and at least 2 statute miles visibility aslisted in the granted exemption and Table 1, the certificate holder shall maintain at least CAT IIapproach authorization (operations specification C059) for those fleets to which this exemptionapplies and the following:
    (1) At the time of dispatch the flight crew must be qualified and the aircraft equipped withoperational avionics to conduct a CAT II approach.(2) The intended destination airport must have at least one operational CAT II or CAT III ILSapproach that is available for use if needed.(3) PIC with less than the requisite minimum hours specified in Section 121.652 shall not beutilized in operations under this exemption unless the operator also holds Exemption 5549,the PIC has been trained in accordance with the requirements of that exemption and all ofthe conditions specified by Exemption 5549 are met.
  12. i. If granted an exemption that allows for 1000-foot ceiling and at least 3 statute miles visibility aslisted in the granted exemption and Table 1, the certificate holder shall maintain at least CAT Iapproach authorization (Operations Specifications C052 and C074) for those fleets and flight crewsto which the exemption would apply as well as the following:
    (1) At the time of dispatch the aircraft avionics equipment required to conduct CAT I ILSapproach must be installed and operational. At the time of dispatch the flight crew mustbe qualified to conduct a CAT I approach minima of at least 200 feet and RVR 2000 orlower, if published.(2) The intended destination airport must have at least one operational CAT I ILS approach withminima of at least 200 feet and RVR 2000 that is available for use if needed.(3) PIC with less than the requisite minimum hours specified in Section 121.652 shall not beutilized in operations under this exemption unless the operator also holds Exemption 5549,the PIC has been trained in accordance with the requirements of that exemption and all ofthe conditions specified by Exemption 5549 are met.
  13. j. The exemption(s) referenced in Table 1 cannot be used if thunderstorms are forecast in either themain body of a weather report or in the remarks section of the forecast between one hour before toone hour after the estimated time of arrival at the destination airport.
    k. In the event any of the monitoring or capability requirements become inoperative after dispatch,the PIC and dispatcher will determine whether the degradation would preclude a safe landing atthe destination airport.
  14. l. Mandatory Pilot Reports. Pilots will notify Dispatch as soon as practicable in the event of anyof the following:
    (1) Lateral deviation from the planned route by greater than 100 NM.(2) Vertical deviation from the planned altitude by greater than 4000 feet.(3) ETA will exceed planned by greater than 15 minutes.(4) Fuel consumption in excess of planned that may have a negative effect on trip fuelrequirements.(5) Fuel system component failure or apparent malfunction that may have a negative effecton trip fuel requirements.(6) The flight encounters weather significantly different than forecast, to include turbulence.(7) The flight is assigned enroute or arrival holding.(8) Unplanned or sustained use of deicing or anti-icing systems.
  15. m. The certificate holder shall maintain a system for trend-tracking of all diversions. For atleast the first 24 months of operations under the exemption(s) referenced in Table 1, or for suchlonger period of time as the POI deems necessary in order to thoroughly evaluate operationalperformance, the certificate holder must provide the Administrator, by the 15th of each month,reports, formatted in chronological order and by fleet type, that fully document each diversion fromthe previous calendar month and include at least the following:
    (1) The total number of flights operated under domestic rules to destinations within the 48contiguous states by the certificate holder.(2) The total number of flights in subparagraph m.(1) above that divert to an alternate airport.(3) Total number of flights operated under the exemption(s) referenced in Table 1 includingthose flights conducted under the appropriate provisions and limitations of operationsspecification A012. For each flight operated the following information must be included:(a) Dates(b) Airport pairs(c) Flight numbers(d) Aircraft M/M/S(e) Trended or graphical summary of flight planned fuel versus actual arrival fuel and thecontingency fuel carried(f) Emergency declared and reason(g) Any occurrence of a low fuel state which results in actions being taken by ATC
  16. 4) Diversions Under The Exemption(s). The flight numbers and the airport pairs where flightswere diverted to an alternate airport that are operated under the exemption(s) referenced inTable 1, and the following:
    (a) Date of each diversion(b) Aircraft M/M/S(c) The reason for each diversion, such as but not limited to, weather conditions, mechanicalproblem, fuel quantity, passenger problems, air traffic, flight crew or any other reason(d) Fuel remaining at the diversion airfield(e) Original weather forecast for original destination(f) Air traffic control priority and the reason for the assignment, if applicable
  17. 02.01.04 WEATHER REQUIREMENTS FOR ALTERNATEDEPARTURE ALTERNATES FAR 121.617• A departure alternate identified in the flight release is required when the weather at thedeparture airport is below CAT I landing minimums.• For two engine aircraft, the departure alternate must be within one hour or 300 NM.• For three or more engine aircraft, the departure alternate must be within two hours or 600 NM.• Weather requirements are the same as for a destination alternate.
  18. Landing at AlternateUse regular charted minimums for landing at an alternate airport. Visibility
    must not be less than 3miles and ceiling not less than 1000 feet for maneuvering visually to land.
  19. 02.01.05 ENROUTE WEATHER-DESTINATION WEATHER GOES BELOW MINIMUMSFAR 121.627If the destination weather goes
    below minimums while enroute, the flight may continue to thedestination unless the Captain or Flight Control determines the flight cannot be conducted safely(FAR 121.627(a)). Factors such as alternate weather, fuel onboard and weather trends at boththe destination and alternate should be considered when deciding if the flight is safe to continue.Weather below minimums at the destination generally does not signify an unsafe condition sincethe aircraft has fuel to proceed from the destination to the alternate.
    not allow an aircraft to continue to its destination unless the weatherconditions at the alternate airport are forecast to be at or above the alternate minimums at the timethe aircraft would arrive at the alternate airport. A new alternate must be assigned and recordedon the flight release.NOTE: Once an aircraft has turned to go to the alternate airport, alternate minimums no longerapply. The listed alternate has now become the destination and only destination requiredvisibility is required to commence the approach.
  21. 02.01.07 DIVERTING TO ALTERNATEFAR 121.601, 121.631As a normal operating procedure,
    if a landing cannot be made because of weather or otheroperating factors at a destination airport, the Captain will contact the Flight Dispatcher prior toproceeding to an alternate. Flight Dispatcher must inform the Captain of any changes to weather,facilities or other operational considerations that might impact this decision. This will ensure thebest alternate for the flight has been reviewed prior to diversion
    The hot spare launch is a critical component to a successful sort operation. Contingency andgateway personnel rely on the ability to launch the hot spare aircraft within a 30-minute window.The 30-minute launch goal is generally obtainable by conducting required interior/exterior preflightinspections at the beginning of the hot reserve duty period and then picking up the pre-startsequence at the “Before Start Checklist” point once arriving at the aircraft when launched. Otherthan this planned break in the preflight process, crews are expected to perform all other duties inaccordance with established Aircraft Operating Manual (AOM)/Flight Operations Manual (FOM)procedures. These procedures are general hot reserve procedures that apply to all hot sparelaunches in the UPS system. Each gateway supporting a hot spare may publish more specificprocedures in the form of a “Hot Spare Briefing Guide.”Gateway PreparationThe designated hot spare aircraft will be readied for preflight 30 minutes prior to flight crew check-in.The RCC Manager (SDF) or Gateway Manager/Supervisor will ensure that these tasks havebeen performed:1. The aircraft has been fueled to the desired fuel load.2. External power is on the aircraft and remains on the aircraft throughout the standby period. 3. External air is available for aircraft with an inoperative APU.4. The aircraft is “green” (no open logbook items).
  23. 02.02.02 FLIGHT CREW PROCEDURESAfter check-in, you may request a briefing from Flight Control of the latest weather information forthe departure airfield and applicable operating areas during your standby period.
    When a hot spare aircraft becomes available, proceed to the designated hot spare aircraft andperform normal exterior and interior inspections. Leave the aircraft “readied” so you can go directlyto the cockpit and start engines if you are launched. If a mechanical or other problem surfacesduring the preflight, contact Ramp Control on 129.95 or Operations on 130.55 at SDF or GatewayOperations at gateways other than SDF.Refer to “Verification of Empty Aircraft” procedures if the hot spare aircraft is reported empty.Hot Spare Gateways may employ a variety of methods to ensure a hot spare aircraft is easilyidentifiable to ramp personnel and not disturbed once preflighted. Such procedures would beidentified in the Hot Spare Briefing Guide for that specific gateway. Should a crewmemberdiscover the condition of the aircraft changed in any way, the crew may elect to perform additionalinspections to verify the aircraft is still ready for flight.Before leaving the aircraft, accomplish the “Shutdown and Secure” checklist and close the crewentry door if inclement weather is forecasted.Complete the “Hot Spare Worksheet” indicating the status of the hot spare aircraft. Returnthe worksheet to Flight Administration (SDF) and/or have the gateway fax the worksheet toContingency, as per each gateway’s Hot Spare procedures. The Contingency Manager coordinatesthe resolution of maintenance discrepancies, fueling requirements or deicing needs.Remain in Flight Operations during the hot reserve period. The Captain is the primary point ofcontact for the crew and must be able to respond to a Public Announcement (PA) or a page. TheF/O must keep the Captain informed of their whereabouts at all times during the duty period
  24. LaunchIn the event of a launch, perform these tasks:
    1. Report to the Flight Administration window (SDF) or the Flight Operations office at gatewaysother than SDF.2. Review FBP and sign the flight release.3. Monitor ramp and/or operations frequency during the launch process. 4. Start engines and block-out as soon as possible unless a cancellation order is received overACARS or ramp/operations frequency.5. If the hot launch is delayed, crews should complete an Event Report detailing the causefor the delay. The System Operations Supervisor should also be contacted so appropriatefollow-up can be completed to avoid future delays.Even though hot spare launches are high visibility flights critical to the operation, safety isparamount. You are expected to conduct this flight just like you would any other flight. If anythinghappens that is going to delay the departure, do not attempt to rush to make up the lost time justto achieve an on-time block-out. A 30-minute launch window should be obtainable if everythingworks correctly
  25. 02.03 DEPARTURE PROCEDURES02.03.01 ALTIMETER PROCEDURES PASSING THE TRANSITION ALTITUDECrews must brief and maintain their transition altitude awareness to prevent leveling at a flight level(which is based on QNE) with QNH still set in the altimeters. When the transition altitude occursvery quickly after takeoff, extreme pressure conditions exist, or when climbing to an assigned flightlevel close to the transition altitude, the Captain may deviate from the following altimeter settingprocedure to the extent necessary to assure compliance with assigned altitudes.
  26. Altimeter Change Procedure - Climb:• Change from QNH to QNE Standard (STD) upon leaving the transition altitude.Upon leaving the transition altitude, the Pilot Monitoring (PM) will set and be the first to call outthe altimeter setting. The Pilot Flying (PF) sets the altimeter setting, verifies all altimeters areset, confirms all altitudes are in agreement and states aloud the appropriate setting.• Both pilots are
    are responsible for ensuring that all altimeters are set correctly and all altitudescrosschecked.NOTE: Crews operating in international airspace must follow country specific rules to determinethe proper altitude and position at which to reset altimeters. Differences may exist withUPS procedures. Reference the J-Aid ATC country specific pages (i.e., U.K., Hong Kong).NOTE: The transition level is normally broadcast
    Crews must brief and maintain their transition level awareness to prevent leveling at an altitude (orconducting an approach or landing) with QNE still set in the altimeters. When the transition level isbelow FL100, extreme pressure conditions exist, or when descending to an assigned altitude closeto the transition level, the Captain may deviate from the following altimeter change procedure to theextent necessary to assure compliance with assigned altitudes.
  28. Altimeter Change Procedure - Descent:
    • Change from QNE (STD) to QNH upon leaving the transition level.When descending through the transition level, the PM will set and be the first to call out thealtimeter setting. The PF sets the altimeter setting, verifies all altimeters are set, confirms allaltitudes are in agreement and states aloud the appropriate setting.• Both pilots are responsible for ensuring that all altimeters are set correctly and all altitudescrosschecked.NOTE: Crews operating in international airspace must follow country specific rules to determinethe proper altitude and position at which to reset altimeters. Differences may exist withUPS procedures. Reference the J-Aid ATC country specific pages (e.g., U.K., Hong Kong).NOTE: The transition level is normally broadcast
    Crew briefings are an important part of the cockpit communications process. When crew briefingsare used to supplement standard operating procedures, each crewmember should understandexactly what is expected of him during critical phases of flight. Because landing procedures arespecified in the Normal Procedures section of the AOM, the normal crew briefing should not be anextensive verbalization of established procedures. To prevent runway incursions during groundoperations, brief the expected taxi route from the landing runway to the ramp. Include InternationalRelief Officer (IRO) (if one is onboard) in taxi route discussions so they can monitor taxi progressand hold short instructions and remain vigilant during runway crossings.
  30. Each approach and landing is a unique combination of aircraft capabilities, airport interface,weather conditions, navigation aids and crew experience. The crew briefing should be tailored toprepare the crew for the execution of the maneuver within the anticipated environment.
    All UPS aircraft checklists require that a briefing be accomplished prior to each approach andlanding.All briefings will prepare the crew for normal and emergency procedures that are unique to theanticipated approach and landing. For the first flight with a particular crew, it may be appropriateto give a detailed briefing covering these procedures such as missed approach procedures.Briefings during inclement weather should prepare the crew for expected weather conditions to beencountered during the takeoff or approach and landing.The approach and landing briefing, as a minimum, should include field elevation, type of approach,applicable NOTAMs, special considerations, terrain and transition level. If an instrument approachis anticipated, also include the following:• Approach chart name and date• Navigation radio and instrument set-up– Frequencies– Final Approach Course• Approach Altitudes– Minimum Safe Altitude– ILS/Glideslope Intercept Altitude or crossing altitude at the Final Approach Fix (FAF)– Decision Altitude or Height DA (H); or Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) and MissedApproach Point (MAP)– Timing (as necessary)• Missed Approach Procedure– Special cases involving Minimum Climb Gradient Requirements• Transition Level02.04.02 CALLOUTS
  31. 02.04.02 CALLOUTS
    Make callouts strictly in accordance with the AOM. “Standardized callouts prevent distractionssince the callouts are expected and planned. Standard callouts keep the crew mentally andphysically engaged in the effort to operate safely. Standard callouts specify which pilot shouldmake the callout, the Pilot Flying (PF) or Pilot Monitoring (PM). A missed callout by the specifiedpilot is a red flag alert for the crew to increase their monitoring efforts.”
  32. 02.04.03 APPROACHESFAR 91.189(g), 121.567, 121.651(f), 121.659
    Approaches shall be conducted in accordance with Company policies, Company procedures,Company OpSpecs, FARs and appropriate approach charts. For an operation at a foreignairport, the more restrictive of OpSpecs minimums or the weather minimums prescribed by thehost country shall be utilized.When conducting an IFR initial approach to a radio navigation facility, the aircraft may not descendbelow the published initial approach altitude until position over the facility is positively established.
    Previous studies indicate tremendous environmental improvements (noise and emissions), as wellas fuel and time savings. CDA procedures provide RNAV routing that include both altitude andairspeed constraints that allow for near idle descents. Stabilized approach criteria are still required.RNAV CDA procedures are published as Jeppesen arrivals and included in the FMS database forthe B757/767, B747-400 and A300. These procedures are developed and tested to fully utilizethe LNAV/VNAV modes of the FMC until established on final approach. Ideally, to produce theleast amount of noise, the aircraft will be in an idle or low-thrust state from the top of descent untilestablished on the final approach course, without any level flight segments.
  34. FMC Programming• The named RNAV CDA arrivals should be available from the FMS database.
    NOTE: If the RNAV CDA joins the final approach course, load the approach to the landing runwaybefore loading the arrival. This ensures the pre-programmed waypoint altitude/airspeedconstraints are not deleted.• Verify the waypoints and the airspeed/altitude constraints match the constraints on theJeppesen arrival chart.• Load descent winds, if available, on descent page at least 200 NM prior to top of descent.• Do not program the final approach speed in the FMC for either the final approach fix or therunway fix.NOTE: This will prevent the FMC from driving the speed bug to lower than the CDApre-programmed speeds.
  35. Crew Procedures - General
    Maintain speeds within ± 10 knots IAS of speeds outlined on the arrivals. Timely selectionof gear and flaps will maintain the required speeds and provide a stabilized approach at1000 feet AFE.• After an unplanned intermediate level off by ATC, attempt to meet restrictions on the arrival. Ifunable, advise ATC and comply with their instructions.• If ATC requests a speed reduction during the descent, while on path, select Speed Interveneand use power or speed brake to maintain the speed and the path.• If weather disrupts the traffic flow, all CDA arrivals may be cancelled and normal arrivalprocedures should be expected.• The B757/767 and B747-400 will best perform the CDA in LNAV/VNAV.NOTE: The B767 and the B747-400 will not maintain VNAV path after selecting Speed intervene.• The A300 should utilize the vertical mode that allows the aircraft to meet the published altitudeand airspeed constraints.• While on the arrival, comply with the CDA speed and altitude crossing restrictions and plannedspeed and altitude, unless otherwise instructed by ATC. B757/767 and B747-400 shouldmaintain VNAV path as close as possible.
  36. 02.04.05 STABILIZED APPROACHESThe purpose of conducting a stabilized approach is to maintain a high degree of safety during theapproach and landing process. In complying with stabilized approach criteria, the Captain mustconsider traffic and weather conditions, distance to the runway and the aircraft’s energy profile. Theobjective is to plan the aircraft configuration process in a manner that results in arriving at 1000 feetAbove Field Elevation (AFE) during the approach, in a stabilized condition. Under no circumstanceswill safety of flight be compromised. If at any time during the approach, the Captain feels that thestabilized approach criteria cannot be achieved or maintained, a go-around must be initiated.
  37. All approaches must be stabilized by 1000 feet AFE. An approach is considered stable when thefollowing conditions are met:
    Aircraft is in the landing configuration and the landing checklist is complete.• Airspeed is within +10 or -5 knots of computed final approach speed*.• If an ILS system is being used, the aircraft is within one dot of glideslope.• Sink rate is 1000 feet per minute or less and stable**.• Aircraft is on a stable vertical path that will result in landing within the touchdown zone.• Engine thrust is stabilized at a level that results in target speed (as listed above). • Aircraft is aligned with the lateral confines of the runway by 200 feet.NOTE: *Airspeed must be within 5 knots of target by 500 feet AFE.NOTE: **Vertical speed up to 1200 feet per minute may be acceptable under approachconditions that require higher airspeeds/ground speeds due to non-normal aircraft systemconfiguration.
  38. Visual ApproachesWhen conducting visual approaches, weather, traffic and ATC requests must be considered. Theseapproaches should be planned so as to remain as aerodynamically clean as possible during theinitial approach for traffic, noise abatement and fuel conservation. Plan the arrival and aircraftconfiguration so as to meet all the stabilized approach criteria listed above by 1000 feet AFE.
    If visual or instrument approach aids are available, the aircraft descent profile must be on-path (ILSglide path, VASI, PAPI, etc.). The aircraft speed may be no greater than target plus 10 knots at1000 feet AFE and must be stable within 5 knots of target no later than 500 feet AFE. Momentaryand small excursions outside of the above criteria are not considered destabilizing if they are ofshort duration and the stabilized criteria can be regained right away (i.e., gusty wind conditions).Otherwise, if the approach should become destabilized below 1000 feet AFE, a go-around/missedapproach must be executed immediately. If either pilot initiates a missed approach, neither pilotmay change the decision to conduct the missed approach procedure.
  39. Instrument ApproachesDuring an instrument approach, crews are encouraged to stabilize the approach before 1000 feetAFE. However, all stabilized approach criteria must be met and the aircraft must be on a stablevertical path (no unusual glide path oscillations) no later than 1000 feet AFE. In addition, thefollowing criteria are applicable at 1000 feet AFE for stabilized instrument approaches in IMC:
    • Localizer and or glideslope deviation is one dot or less (steady state).• VOR course deviation is one quarter scale or less.• NDB course deviation is no greater than five degrees from desired bearing.If any of the above parameters cannot be maintained, or if the approach should becomedestabilized below 1000 feet AFE, a go-around/missed approach must be executed immediately.Any time after commencing the final approach segment (FAF inbound or GSIA) on aninstrument approach in IMC, an immediate go-around is mandatory if any of the followingindications are present:• On an ILS approach, the localizer or glideslope indication reaches full-scale deflection.• On a VOR approach, the course indicator shows a full-scale deflection. On an NDB approach, the bearing indication deviates by more than 10 degrees from desiredbearing.• On a GPS approach, if the aircraft position exceeds 0.2 miles either side of course.If either pilot initiates a missed approach, neither pilot may change the decision to conduct themissed approach procedure.
  40. 02.05 COMMUNICATIONS02.05.01 ATC SYSTEM PROCEDURES PHRASEOLOGYFAA ORDER JO 7110.65T, AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL3-7-5 Precision Approach Critical Areaa. ILS critical area dimensions are described in FAAO 6750.16, Siting Criteria for InstrumentLanding Systems. Aircraft and vehicle access to the ILS/MLS critical area must be controlled toensure the integrity of ILS/MLS course signals whenever conditions are less than reported ceiling800 feet or visibility less than 2 miles. Do not authorize vehicles/aircraft to operate in or over thecritical area, except as specified in subpara a.1, whenever an arriving aircraft is inside the ILSOuter Marker (OM) or the fix used in lieu of the OM unless the arriving aircraft has reported therunway in sight or is circling to land on another runway.
    Phraseology-Hold Short of (Runway) ILS/MLS Critical Area1. LOCALIZER CRITICAL AREA(a) Do not authorize vehicle or aircraft operations in or over the area when an arrivingaircraft is inside the ILS OM or the fix used in lieu of the OM when conditions are lessthan reported ceiling 800 feet or visibility less than 2 miles, except:(1) A preceding arriving aircraft on the same or another runway that passes over orthrough the area while landing or exiting the runway.(2) A preceding departing aircraft or missed approach on the same or another runwaythat passes through or over the area.(b) In addition to subpara a.1(a), do not authorize vehicles or aircraft operations in or overthe area when an arriving aircraft is inside the middle marker when conditions are lessthan reported ceiling 200 feet or RVR 2000 feet.
  41. 2. GLIDESLOPE CRITICAL AREADo not authorize vehicles or aircraft
    aircraft operations in or over the area when an arriving aircraftis inside the ILS OM or the fix used in lieu of the OM unless the arriving aircraft has reportedthe runway in sight or is circling to land on another runway when conditions are less thanreported ceiling 800 feet or visibility less than 2 miles.Air carriers commonly conduct “coupled” or “autoland” operations to satisfy maintenance,training or reliability program requirements. Promptly issue an advisory if the critical area willnot be protected when an arriving aircraft advises that a “coupled,” “CAT III,” “autoland” orsimilar type approach will be conducted and the weather is reported ceiling of 800 feet ormore and the visibility is 2 miles or more.
  42. READBACKSThe following items shall always be read back:
    ATC route clearances; all clearances to enter, land on, takeoff on, cross and backtrack on therunway in use; other clearances or instructions that include conditional clearances; and runway inuse, altimeter settings, SSR (transponder) codes, level instructions and if required, transition levels.EXAMPLE: Air Traffic Services: “UPS 6077, squawk three four two five.” Aircraft reply: “Threefour two five UPS 6077.”• If the level of an aircraft is reported in relation to standard pressure (QNE) 1013.2 hPa (1013.2mb), the words “flight level” should precede the level figures. If the level of the aircraft isreported in relation to QNH, the figure should be followed by the word “feet.”• An aircraft may be requested to STANDBY on a frequency when it is intended that the ATCunit will initiate communications and to MONITOR a frequency when information is beingbroadcast thereon.
  43. INTERNATIONAL PHRASEOLOGYTaxiWhen you advise that you are ready to taxi,
    you may be instructed “UPS 6078 taxi to holding point,Runway 28.” Although this sounds like the U.S. “position and hold,” the two commands are verydifferent. In this case, the command “to holding point, Runway 28” is the equivalent of the U.S.command, “hold short Runway 28.” As you will see below, the international equivalent of “positionand hold” is “line up Runway 28” or “line up and wait Runway 28.”
  44. DEPARTUREThe word “takeoff” is restricted to the actual takeoff clearance or its cancellation, e.g., “UPS 6078cleared for takeoff, cancel, I say again, cancel takeoff.” In all other cases it is referred to as“Departure,” e.g., “UPS 6078, are you ready for (immediate) departure?”
    To stop a takeoff inemergency conditions, the phraseology “UPS 6078 stop immediately” is used twice. For pilots torequest takeoff clearance, use the phraseology, “UPS (flight number) ready for departure.”If takeoff clearance cannot be given, the aircraft may be instructed to “Line up,” “Line up runway(number)” or “Line up and wait” (i.e., the equivalent of “Taxi into position and hold”). In these cases,the aircraft may taxi onto the runway and must wait for takeoff clearance.Flight crews may also be given “conditional” instructions or “conditional” clearances which willcontain the call sign, the condition and the clearance or instruction. For example: “UPS 6078 afterL-1011 on short final, line up.” The crew would have to read back the conditional instruction and afterthe landing L-1011 passed, the aircraft could line up on the runway and await takeoff clearance.
  45. ARRIVALAn aircraft will be “cleared to land”
    and, after landing but still on the runway, may be instructed to“expedite vacating” or given instructions which way to turn to “vacate” the runway. When off therunway, use the phrase “UPS (flight number) runway vacated.” Standardization of ATC phraseologyis a continuing process and some minor variations may be encountered, especially when newprocedures are implemented. If any doubt exists, the pilot should verify the clearance with ATC.ICAO members may use all or part of the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS)regarding ATC phraseology. The United States does not use all of the SARPS. Therefore, somephraseology used in most ICAO member countries varies somewhat from what we are accustomedto hearing in the U.S. The following is a review of a few ICAO phraseologies and requirements.The use of the words “clear,” “cleared” and “clearance” is restricted to takeoff/landing clearances,approach clearances and instructions and ATC route clearance‚ Y approach clearances andinstructions and ATC route clearance.
  46. 02.06 SITUATIONAL AWARENESSSituation Awareness (SA) is one of the most valuable credential of the professional pilot.
    t is alsoimportant for effective decision making and performance during flight operations. In aviation thereis a complex and dynamic environment where human decision making is highly dependent on SA.Many definitions of SA have been developed, some very closely tied to the aircraft domain andsome more general. A general, widely applicable definition describes SA as “the perception ofthe elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of theirmeaning and the projection of their status in the near future.”Perception. The first step in achieving SA is to perceive the status, attributes and dynamics ofrelevant elements in the environment. This includes relevant system parameters, characteristicsand action of other individuals and features of the external environment.Comprehension (Current Situation). Comprehension of the situation is based on a synthesisof disjointed elements of perception. Comprehension goes beyond simply being aware of theelements which are present, to include an understanding of the significance of those elements inlight of one’s goals. Comprehension is often developed over time based on the observed dynamicsof the system (how variables are changing in relation to each other). Projection (Future Status). The ability to project the future actions of the elements in theenvironment, at least in the very near term, this forms the highest level of situation awareness. Thisis achieved through knowledge of the status and dynamic of the elements and a comprehensionof the situation. The ability to predict what will be happening with the system at least in the nearterm, allows one to act proactively instead of reactively with a system. “Simply said, situationalawareness is knowing where you are now, why you are there and how that will affect where you willbe in the very near future.”
  47. 02.07 AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV)AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV)a. General. RNAV is a method of navigation that permits aircraft operation on any desired flightpath within the
    the coverage of ground or space based navigation aids or within the limits of thecapability of self-contained aids, or a combination of these. In the future, there will be an increaseddependence on the use of RNAV in lieu of routes defined by ground-based navigation aids.RNAV routes and terminal procedures, including Departure Procedures (DPs) and StandardTerminal Arrivals (STARs), are designed with RNAV systems in mind. There are several potentialadvantages of RNAV routes and procedures:1. Time and fuel savings,2. Reduced dependence on radar vectoring, altitude and speed assignments allowing areduction in required ATC radio transmissions, and3. More efficient use of airspace.In addition, guidance for domestic RNAV DPs, STARs and routes may also be found in AdvisoryCircular 90-100A, U.S. Terminal and Enroute Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations.
  48. b. RNAV Operations. RNAV procedures, such as DPs and STARs, demand strict pilot awarenessand maintenance of the procedure centerline. Pilots should possess a working knowledge of theiraircraft navigation system to ensure RNAV procedures are flown in an appropriate manner. Inaddition, pilots should have an understanding of the various waypoint and leg types used in RNAVprocedures; these are discussed in more detail below.
    • 1. Waypoints. A waypoint is a predetermined geographical position that is defined in termsof latitude/longitude coordinates. Waypoints may be a simple named point in space orassociated with existing navaids, intersections or fixes. A waypoint is most often used toindicate a change in direction, speed or altitude along the desired path. RNAV proceduresmake use of both fly-over and fly-by waypoints.
    • (a) Fly-by waypoints. Fly-by waypoints are used when an aircraft should begin a turnto the next course prior to reaching the waypoint separating the two route segments.This is known as turn anticipation.(b) Fly-over waypoints. Fly-over waypoints are used when the aircraft must fly over thepoint prior to starting a turn.NOTE: Figure 5 illustrates several differences between a fly-by and a fly-over waypoint.
  49. 2. RNAV Leg Types. A leg type describes the desired path proceeding, following, or betweenwaypoints on an RNAV procedure.
    Leg types are identified by a two-letter code thatdescribes the path (e.g., heading, course, track, etc.) and the termination point (e.g., thepath terminates at an altitude, distance, fix, etc.). Leg types used for procedure design areincluded in the aircraft navigation database, but not normally provided on the procedurechart. The narrative depiction of the RNAV chart describes how a procedure is flown. The“path and terminator concept” defines that every leg of a procedure has a termination pointand some kind of path into that termination point. Some of the available leg types aredescribed below.(a) Track to Fix. A Track to Fix (TF) leg is intercepted and acquired as the flight track to thefollowing waypoint. Track to Fix legs are sometimes called point-to-point legs for thisreason. Narrative: “on track 087 to CHEZZ WP.” See Figure 6.
  50. 3. Navigation Issues. Pilots should be aware of their navigation system inputs, alerts andannunciations in order to make better-informed decisions. In addition, the availability andsuitability of particular sensors/systems should be considered.
    (a) GPS. Operators using TSO-C129 systems should ensure departure and arrival airportsare entered to ensure proper RAIM availability and CDI sensitivity.(b) DME/DME. Operators should be aware that DME/DME position updating is dependenton FMS logic and DME facility proximity, availability, geometry and signal masking.(c) VOR/DME. Unique VOR characteristics may result in less accurate values fromVOR/DME position updating than from GPS or DME/DME position updating.(d) Inertial Navigation. Inertial reference units and inertial navigation systems are oftencoupled with other types of navigation inputs, e.g., DME/DME or GPS, to improve overallnavigation system performance.
  51. 4. Flight Management System (FMS). An FMS is an integrated suite of sensors, receivers,and computers, coupled with a navigation database. These systems generally provideperformance and RNAV guidance to displays and automatic flight control systems.
    These systems generally provideperformance and RNAV guidance to displays and automatic flight control systems.Inputs can be accepted from multiple sources such as GPS, DME, VOR, LOC and IRU.These inputs may be applied to a navigation solution one at a time or in combination. SomeFMSs provide for the detection and isolation of faulty navigation information.When appropriate navigation signals are available, FMSs will normally rely on GPS and/orDME/DME (that is, the use of distance information from two or more DME stations) forposition updates. Other inputs may also be incorporated based on FMS system architectureand navigation source geometry.NOTE: DME/DME inputs coupled with one or more IRU(s) are often abbreviated asDME/DME/IRU or D/D/I.