Policy Midterm questions

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  1. a series of collectve interventions that contriute to the general welfare byassigning claims from one set of people who are said to produce or earn the national income to another set of people who may merit compassion and charity.
    Social Services
  2. a subset of social policy that regulates the provision of benefits to people to meet basic life needs such as food, housing, and health care
    Social Welfare Policy
  3. - Is the framework of commonly held beliefs through which we view the world
    - what has value and assumed to be true
  4. Refers to the interaction of political and economic theories in understanding society
    Political economy
  5. an open and representative form of government that coexists with a market economy
    Democratic capitalism
  6. What is the political economy in the United States
    Democratic Capitalism
  7. What are the 3 major schools of economics in the U.S.
    • Keynesian
    • Classical or free market
    • Democratic Socialism
  8. - active government intervention in the marketplace
    - smooth bumps in economy
    - Drives liberalism and most welfare state ideologies
  9. Which ideological perspective is guided by Keynesian economics
  10. Which school of economics guides conservative ideological perspective
    Free Market
  11. An economic theory that states that a reduction in taxes will stimulate the economy through increased consumer spending. Overtime the increased economic growth will generate a larger tax base which will recoup the revenue lost from the tax cut
    Supply Side Economics
  12. - Strong incentives exist for interest groups to make demands on overnment
    - Resulting concessions from this arrangement flow directly to the interest group
    - their costs are spread among all taxpayers
    Public Choice School
  13. - Based on the belief that radical economic change can occur within a democratic context
    - commitment to popular, constitutional rule and protection of basic rights
    -involves equitable distribution of the community's wealth
    -key aspects of economic life publicly owned
    Democratic Socialism
  14. - collective or governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods
    -vesting of the ownership and control of the means in the comunity as a whole
  15. industrial economic models are irrelevant to the economic needs of poor communities and are often damaging to the spiritual life of people
    - quality of life cannot be measured by material acquisitions
    - based on needs of peole
    Self-Reliance School
  16. - pertaining to liberty or the doctrine of free will, as opposed to doctrine of necessity
    - no government regulation
    - defends the rights of the individual
    - government growth occurs at the expense of individual freedom
    - critical of taxation
    - decriminalization of drugs
  17. a systematic model for examining a specific social welfare policy or a series of policies
    Policy Analysis Framework
  18. What is the purpose of policy analysis framework?
    • is to provide the analyst with a model or a set of questions for systematically analyzing a policy
    • choice of framework must fit the requirements of the project as well as the resources available
    • can use combined models
  19. What led to the gradual assumption of government responsibility for social welfare?
    English Poor Laws
  20. What 3 products of the 2nd Great Awakening had a lasting influence on social welfare policy?
    • the religious impulse for reform was channeled to private organizations
    • a cadre of female leaders mobilized and trained
    • Black clergy began to form to lead the African American converts
  21. Who led a campaign to reform the care of the mentally ill
    Dorthea Dix
  22. - the first important pubic health group
    U.S. Sanitary Commission
  23. -provided a variety of services designed to help blacks make the transition from slavery to freedom
    The Freedman's Bureau
  24. - was an outgrowth of Darwin's Theory of Evolution
    Social Darwinism
  25. - was tried for teaching evolution in a TN school
    John Scopes
  26. - LBJ declared a "war on poverty"
    - 1,000 pieces of legislation passes
    - Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act
    The Great Society
  27. List the 3 theories that explain discrimination
    • Frustration-aggression
    • Authoritarian personality
    • Normative-cultural
    • Economics
  28. Frustration-aggression Theory
    • Discrimination is a form of aggression activated when individual needs become frustrated
    • argues that when people cannot direct their aggression at the real sources they seek a substitute target
    • Ex. poor southern whites
  29. Authoritarian Personality Theory
    • Discriminatory behavior is determined by personality traits that involve a reaction to authority
    • Those who exhibit the traits of irrationality rigidity, conformity, xenophobia (fear of people from other countries) are more likely to discriminate against minorities that are people lacking those ttraits
    • Others thought these attitudes arise from a sense of insecurity, sel-hatred, deep seated fears, and unresolved childhood needs and frustrations
  30. Normative-Cultural Explanation
    • Suggests that individuals hold prejudicial attitudes because of their socialization
    • Overt and covert messages, a society teaches and rewards those who conform to prevailing attitudes and behaviors
    • Strong societal pressures to conform to established norms, resistance to discriminatory practices becomes difficult
    • This theory suggests that as social and institutional norms that support discriminatory practices change, individual attitudes will follow suit
    • ex. special opprobrium in the old South was reserved for liberal whites who broke the norms governing interactions with blacks
  31. - discrimination against and prejudicial treatment of a racially different minority group
  32. A pattern of racial discrimination that is strongly entrenched in a socity is called -
    Institutional racism
  33. What group is the nation's largest minority community?
  34. - it extended federal oversight for specific state and local jurisdictions with historical patterns of discrimination against minority voters
    Voting Rights Act Reauthorization and Amendments Act of 2006
  35. Disempowering minority voters by consolidatin their votes into single districts
  36. What acts were passed after 911
    • Patriot Act
    • Enhanced Bordr Security Act
    • Homeland Security Act
  37. What 2 groups have been impacted by stricter visa procedures
    • Males from Arab and Muslim Countries
    • Foreign Students
  38. people recruited to enter the US for agricultural work
    Guest Worker
  39. term that denotes the discriminatory and prejudicial treatment of women based on gender
  40. term that stated that poverty was rapidly becoming a female phenomenon as women accounted for an increasingly larger porportion of the economically disadvantaged
    • Feminization of poverty
    • coined by Diana Pearce
  41. - Income disparity between men and women can be traced to this
    - Female jobs but typically lowest paying
    - 100 employment categories where women are few
    Occupational segreation
  42. - the idea that workers should be paid equally for different types of work
    - if the jobs require the same levels of skill, education, knowledge, training, responsibility and effort
    What is comparable worth
  43. - the desire to equalize incomes through comparable worth
    - based on the belief that a "women's work" is valued less than traditional male occupations
    What is Dual Labor Market
  44. What are the policies that impact Gays and Lesbians
    • DOMA - the only legitimate marriage was with a member of hte opposite sex
    • DADT - the discriminatory ban on gay and lesbian service members
  45. The irrational fear of homosexuality
  46. Discrimination against people on the grounds of age; specifically,discrimination against the elderly
    What is agism
  47. - an adequate retirement income that corresponds to the general standard of living
    - the promotion of good physical and mental health regardless of economic stature
    - provision of centrally located adequate and affordable housing
    - employment
    - provisions of civic, cultural, and recreational opportunities
    - adequate community services
    - low cost transportation
    - low cost supported living arrangements
    • OAA
    • What is the Old Age Act
  48. - Protected most workers age 30-69 from discrimination in hiring, job retention and promotion
    - stops at 70
    • What is Age Discrimination in Employment Act
    • ADEA
  49. Those unable to work or work frequently in same range of jobs general population
    What is Disability
  50. The inability to perform certain functions expected of the able bodied population
    What is disability
  51. - Affirmative action programs
    - transporation barriers
    - rargeted for people with disabilities in all business, universities, and other federal government places
    Rehabilitation Act of 73
  52. - Lays foundation of equality for people with disabilities and it extends to disabled people civil rights similar to those made available on the basis of race, sex, etc through the Civil Rights Act
    The Americans With Disabilities Act in 90
  53. What are the 3 types of affirmative action programs
    • adoption of voluntary programs to increase the hiring of minorities and women
    • the courts can order an employer or school to create an affirmative action plan
    • Federal, state, and local governments can require conractors to adop affirmative action plans to remain eligible for government contracts
  54. What are the two basic strategies to address discrimination?
    • Nondiscrimination in which no preferential treatment is given to selected groups
    • Affirmative Action
  55. Deprivation, either absolute or relative
    What is poverty
  56. Maintains that poverty and specifically proverty traits are transmitted intergenerationally in a self-perpetuating cycle
    What is the Culture of Poverty Theory
  57. Culture of Poverty theory
    • Maintain that poverty and more specifically, property traits are transmitted intergenerationally in a self-perpetuating cycle
    • The COP transcends regional, rural/urban and national differences and everywhere shows striking
    • similarities in family structure, interpersonal relations, time orientation, value systems, and patterns of spending
    • Lewis maintained that the COP flourishes in certain types of societies where there is a cash economy
    • based on wage labor and production for profit
    • There is a high rate of underempoloyment and unemployment for unskilled workers
    • Low wages are common
    • There is a failure to provide low income groups with social, political, and economic organization
    • either on a voluntary basis or by government imposition
    • There is a set of values held by the dominant class that stress the accumulation of wealth and property,
    • the possibility of upward mobility thrift and the idea that low economic status results from personal inadequacy
  58. Who is the Theorist of Cultur of Poverty Theory (COP)
    Oscar Lewis
  59. Reported on a study of the NY penal system that found crime, pauperism, and disease were transmitted intergenerationally
    Who is Richard Dugdale
  60. What was Dugdale's theory based on?
    A theory based on eugenics and genetic inferiority
  61. - A harvard psychologist and colleague of Shockly and Jensen (sterilization of poor)
    - Claimed that income and wealth are distributed among Americans based on their abilities which in turn are related to their IQ score
    - He rekindled the eugneics theory
    - The bell curve
    Richard Heinstein
  62. This group defines poverty as resulting from exploitation by the ruling capitalist or dominant class
    What is the radical school of thought about poverty
  63. What is the radical school of thought about poverty?
    • Radicals define poverty as resulting from exploitation by the ruling capitalist or dominant class
    • according to socialists, poerty provides capitalist with an army of surplus laborers who will depress the wages of similar workers
  64. He stated that poverty can be understood in terms of status, resource allocation and the division of labor
    Who is David Gil?
  65. Who is David Gil?
    • Stated: Poverty can be understood in terms of status, resource allocation, and the division of labor
    • Most developed societies manipulate these factors
    • The division of labor by the society is used as the basis for assigning status to individual and groups
  66. Poverty is FLUID rather than static process for most Americans - TRUE OR FALSE
  67. - One of the 2 types of poverty
    - Refers to an unequivocal standard necessary for survival
    - the calories necessary for physical survival, adequate shelter, proper clothing
    Those who fall below that standard are considered poor
    What is Absolute Poverty
  68. - One of the 2 types of poverty
    - Refers to deprivation that is relative to the standard of living enjoyed by other members of society
    - Basic needs are met
    - members of a segment of the population may be considered poor if they possess fewer resources, opportunities, or goods than other citizens
    - Can be understood as inequality in the distribution of income, goods, or opportunities
    What is Relative Poverty?
  69. Which type of poverty do we use in the United States?
    Absolute Poverty
  70. What are the 2 measures that the federal government use to measure poverty?
    • The Poverty Threahold (poverty line)
    • The Poverty Guideline
  71. The Poverty Threashold (Poverty Line)
    • Is the official federal poverty measure
    • Used to determine some eligibility for government programs such as SSI and TANF
    • Cash Benifit
  72. Poverty Guideline
    • Inkind Benifits
    • More severe (lower income)
    • Used to determine eligibility for federal programs such as Head Start, food stamps
  73. Who is at the greatest risk for poverty?
    Households headed by single women
  74. What is the problem with focusing on "dead beat" dads?
    Has allowed policy makers to blame a variety of social ills, from poverty to high welfare costs to scoial pathology, on the fathers
  75. What group has the highest poverty rate?
    Families headed by Black women
  76. - is the state of an individual looking for a paying job but not having one.
    - does not include full-time students, the retired, children, or those not actively looking for a
    paying job.
    - Does not assess the adequacy of
    What is Unemployment
  77. - Workers holding jobs below their skill levels
    What is Underemployment
  78. - Those who have given up and stop looking for work, relying on other methods to support themselves
    What is Discouraged Workers
  79. - In a robust economy, businesses start up and close down in numbers leaving workers temporarily out of work
    - Considered to be unavoidable
    - The jobs are there the people just have to find them
    What is Frictional Unemploymetn
  80. - Refers to deeper and longer lasting maladjustments in the labor market such as changes in the technical skills required for new forms of production
    - Mismatch of workers - skills - job requirements or location
    - some may be cyclical because certain groups of workers in certain regions have persistent difficulty finding work owing to an absence of jobs, some unemployment may be chronic
    What is Structural Unemployment
  81. - A factor of overall unemployment that relates to the cyclical trends in growth and production that occur within the business cycle
    Cyclical Unemployment
  82. - welfare programs are often designed to complement the labor market
    - The amount the government pays toworkers through welfare programs when they are not able to participate in the labor market
    What is social wage?
  83. What are the 3 approaches to combat poverty?
    • Curative Strategy (self supporting through changes in personal lives and environment)
    • Alleviative Approach (Ease the suffering rather than work on the causes ie public assistance programs)
    • Preventive Approach (Sees the state as insurance company ie ss)
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Policy Midterm questions
chapters 1-5
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