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  1. 03.09 FIRE PROTECTION03.09.01 GENERAL
    Some fire detection systems are smarter than others. By smart, I’m speaking of the systems thatare continuously monitored for faults. Do you know which ones they are? The L and R EngineFire Detection System, the L and R Engine Overheat System and the APU Fire Detection Systemare the smart systems. The Main Cargo Compartment fire detector loops and the Lower Forwardand Aft Cargo Compartment fire detectors are only tested for faults when power is applied ortransferred or when a manual system test is performed.
  2. 03.09.02 ENGINE FIRE DETECTIONEach engine has two fire detection loops.
    During normal operation, both loops must sense a fireto activate the fire warning. If a fault is detected in one of the loops, the system automaticallyreconfigures itself to single loop operation. A Status message will identify the problem loop. Now,only one loop is needed to sense the condition in order to consider it an actual fire.
  3. (RR) DifferencesIn addition to the normal fire loops,
    additional turbine overheat detectors are installed. Theturbine overheat detectors are tested for faults only during power application or transfer and bypushing the ENG Test switch. The additional turbine detectors do not generate additional EICASmessages. In the event of a dual fire loop failure, a fire indication will result in the cockpit. It isnot possible to distinguish between an actual fire and a dual loop failure. Even performing afire detection system test subsequent to a dual fire detector loop failure will not alter the cockpitindications of an engine fire.
  4. 03.09.03 ENGINE OVERHEAT DETECTIONEach engine has two overheat detection loops.
    During normal operation, both loops must sensean overheat to activate the OVHT caution. If a fault is detected in one of the overheat loops, thesystem reconfigures itself to single loop operation automatically. The problem loop will be identifiedby a Status message. This means that now only one loop is needed to sense the condition inorder to consider it an actual overheat.
  5. (RR) DifferencesIn addition to the normal overheat loops, additional strut (pylon) overheat detectors are installed.The strut (pylon) detectors are tested for
    faults only during power application or transfer and bypushing the ENG Test switch. The additional strut (pylon) detectors do not generate additionalEICAS messages.
  6. 03.09.04 APU FIRE DETECTIONThe APU has two fire detection loops.
    During normal operation, both loops must sense a fireto activate the fire warning. If a fault is detected in one of the loops, the system automaticallyreconfigures itself to single loop operation. A Status message will identify the problem loop. Now,only one loop is needed to sense the condition in order to consider it an actual fire.

    What does the FIRE/OVHT SYS EICAS message indicate? Notice the exact wording, it doesn’tsay LOOP 1 or 2 or DET 1 or 2, it says SYS, meaning System. This message along with the SYSFAIL light (FAIL P-RESET) on the FIRE/OVHT TEST panel indicates a dual loop fault within thesame system. This is a serious loss of system integrity because now you have lost all monitoringof the effected area. Check the Status messages to identify which loops have failed. The QRHprocedure states:FIRE/OVERHEATSYSTEMFAILRESETSWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUSHThis action resets the fault monitoring system for the remaining systems. Now, if another dual loopfault should occur in a different system the crew will be notified.
  7. 03.09.05 ENGINE FIRE EXTINGUISHINGThere are two fire extinguishing bottles.
    Either or both bottles can be discharged into either engine.The bottles are located forward of the aft cargo compartment. The Engine Fire switches aremechanically locked in the down position to avoid inadvertent activation. When a fire is detected,the respective fire switch unlocks and may then be pulled. Rotating the Engine Fire switch in eitherdirection discharges a single fire extinguisher bottle into the associated engine. Rotating theEngine Fire switch in the opposite direction discharges the remaining fire extinguisher bottle intothe same engine. When the bottle is discharged or has low pressure the ENG BTL 1 or 2 DISCHlight and the ENG BTL 1 or 2 EICAS advisory message will display. The override (manual) switchmust be used if fire is not indicated and the fire switch requires pulling, such as during cockpitevacuation or severe damage without fire indication.
  8. 03.09.06 APU FIRE EXTINGUISHINGThere is only one APU fire extinguisher bottle
    which is located forward of the APU firewall. TheAPU fire switch can be rotated in either direction discharging the bottle into the APU area. Whenthe bottle is discharged or has low pressure the APU BTL DISCH light and the APU BTL EICASadvisory message will display. With both fuel control switches in cutoff, if an APU fire occurs, theAPU will automatically shutdown and the extinguisher bottle will automatically discharge (B757only).
  9. 767 DifferencesWith both fuel control switches in cutoff,
    if an APU fire occurs the APU will automatically shutdownbut the crew must discharge the extinguisher bottle.
  10. 03.09.07 MAIN CARGO FIRE DETECTION AND SUPPRESSIONThe main deck has twelve smoke detector units.
    Six smoke detectors make up Loop 1 and theother six detectors make up Loop 2. Both loops must detect smoke to initiate a Cargo Fire Warning.This means that Loop 1 AND Loop 2 detectors must sense smoke. As you can see the system iscomprised of six zones, Zone A to Zone F. Smoke does not have to be sensed from the same zoneto generate a Cargo Fire Warning. Each zone has three air sampling tubes which route the air flowpast DET 1 and 2 in each zone. The motive force that provides for a continuous flow of air past alltwelve of the smoke detectors is the AFT E/E Cooling Exhaust Fan (see Figure 4).
  11. Ground ScenarioJust after starting the right engine
    you receive the Status message; MN CARGO LOOP 1. Duringpower transfer the cargo fire detection system identified a fault in LOOP 1 of the Main CargoCompartment. The system does not automatically configure to single loop operation. This task isstill the duty of the crew and direction can be found in the AOM, Chapter 4 (Cargo Loop, CargoDet. Status Message).
  12. 03.09.08 CARGO LOOP, CARGO DET STATUS MESSAGESIf a MN CARGO LOOP or FWD CARGO DET or AFT CARGO DET status message is observedafter engine start, accomplish the following when crew workload permits.
    ENG/APU/CARGO/FIRE/OVHTTESTSWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRESS[Reconfigures compartment smoke detection for single loop/detector operation which re-enableswarning capability].Now, at any point during the flight if smoke is sensed by any DET 2 in any zone you will receive aMain Cargo Fire Warning.
  13. Inflight ScenarioMN CARGO LOOP 1 develops a fault.
    Because the loops are not continuously monitored for faultsyou will not receive a status level message. At some point later in the flight if fire/smoke occurs inthe main cargo compartment, you would receive the STATUS cue and the EICAS status messagein this case would be MN CARGO LOOP 2. To verify that you have fire/smoke press the CARGOFIRE TEST button…. the system will now reconfigure to “single loop” operation, which means thatif smoke is present, the cargo fire warning will occur after releasing the test switch.
  14. 03.09.09 LOWER FORWARD AND AFT CARGO COMPARTMENT FIRE DETECTIONThe two compartments are identical in configuration.
    The main difference is in the fan used toprovide smoke detector airflow. AFT compartment motive force is provided by the AFT E/E fan.FWD compartment motive force is the recirculation fan. Both detectors in a compartment mustsense smoke to initiate a fire warning. As you know all three cargo compartments employ a firesuppression system which is activated by pushing the CARGO FIRE DEPR switch. This system isdesigned to extinguish the fire by starving the compartments of oxygen (see Figure 5).
  15. B767 DifferencesThe motive force used
    to provide smoke detector airflow is center pneumatic duct pressure whichcreates a venture effect, resulting in sampled air being pulled through all smoke detectors.
  16. 03.09.10 WHEEL WELL FIRE DETECTIONFire detection is provided by
    a single fire detection loop configured along the top of the wheel well.A fire indication is most likely the result of a landing gear brake fire. To deal with a wheel well fire,the QRH procedure directs the crew to extend the gear.
  17. 03.10 FUEL03.10.01 PURPOSE
    The fuel system provides storage, venting, fueling, engine and APU feed, defueling, jettison, fueltransfer and fuel quantity indicating.
  18. 03.10.02 GENERAL DESCRIPTIONFuel TanksAll fuel for the engines and APU are stored within the wing. The three tanks, left main, right mainand center tank are of wet wing construction. The left and right
    main tanks are constructed toinclude a dry bay area located over the engine hot section. Outboard of both main tanks is a surgetank to contain overflow and prevent spills. The surge tanks are normally empty; however, iffuel gets into the surge tanks, the fuel drains back to the respective main tank on the B757 andthe center tank on the B767.On the B757, per the Systems manual, each main tank has a capacity of 2170 U.S. gallons (14,600lbs.); the center tank capacity is 6900 U.S. gallons (46,200 lbs). On the B767, each main tank has acapacity of 6010 U.S. gallons (40,267 lbs); the center tank capacity is 11,960 U.S. gallons (80,132lbs). The fuel density used for these calculations was based on 6.7 lbs./U.S. gallons. The AOMlimitations section regarding fuel capacities uses a maximum allowable fuel density calculation of7.1 lbs./U.S. gallons, therefore the calculations are slightly higher.
  19. 03.10.03 THE VENT SYSTEMThe vent system is designed to maintain
    near ambient atmospheric pressure within the tanks byusing a vent scoop, located underneath each of the two surge tanks.
  20. 03.10.04 FUELING SYSTEMThe fueling system includes a manifold with four fueling
    valves on the B757 and six fueling valveson the B767. These are located within the tanks and a fueling station on the wings leading edge.The fueling valves are controlled by the Fuel Quantity Indicating System (FQIS). An overwing fillport is located on the upper wing surface and is available with certain limitations and can only beused to fill the main tanks.
  21. 03.10.05 THE FUEL FEED SYSTEMThe two engines and APU are
    supplied fuel by the fuel feed system. Two AC pumps are installedfor each main tank and two AC override pumps are installed for the center tank. A DC fuel pump isinstalled in the left main tank to supply fuel pressure to the APU when no AC power is available.A crossfeed system exists to interconnect a normally isolated left and right fuel feed manifold toallow any tank to feed either engine.
  22. 03.10.06 FUEL QUANITY INDICATING SYSTEM (FQIS)The FQIS is a microprocessor
    controlled capacitance type fuel quantity measuring system. Adirect digital display of fuel weight is provided to the cockpit and the refueling station. Tank unitsprovide volume measurement and the densitometers provide a fuel density signal. Alternatively,magnetic measuring sticks, mounted on the wings lower surface, can be used to determine thequantity of fuel.
  23. 03.10.07 DEFUELINGThe B757 and B767 utilize
    defuel valves which interconnect the fuel feed system and the fuelingsystem to provide defueling and fuel transfer operations on the ground only.
  24. 03.10.08 FUEL JETTISONFuel jettison capability is available on the B767 only.
    The fuel jettison system is installed to rapidlyreduce the gross weight of the aircraft during non-normal operations. Two fuel jettison pumpsoperate along with the two center tank override pumps to accomplish the task of jettisoning centertank fuel. This is done at a rate of 2600 lbs./min., and will empty a full center tank (80,132 lbs.) inapproximately 30 minutes.
  25. Even though there is no requirement to dump fuel during non-normal operations (e.g., enginefailure) provided the aircraft is performing adequately, fuel jettison considering would be prudentwhen situations dictate landing at high gross weights and adequate time is available to perform thejettison. When fuel jettison is to be accomplished, consider the following:
    • In non-emergency situations, contact ATC and UPS Flight Control.• Ensure adequate weather minimums exist at airport of intended landing.• Fuel jettison above 4000′ AGL ensures complete fuel evaporation.• Downwind drift of fuel may exceed one mile per 1000′ of drop.
  26. 03.10.09 NEW B767 AIRCRAFT (TAILS N335UP & SUBSEQUENT)The only difference concerning the newer B767 fuel system
    is the installation of the Center TankFuel Pump Power Removal System. Power to the two center tank fuel pumps is automaticallyremoved when the center tank is empty.03.10.10 FUEL SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
  27. B767 Fuel System Operational NotesRecently during line operations there have been instances with the B767 fuel system causingconfusion and concern to crews. The situation involves irregular fuel feed from the main tankswhen the crew’s expectation is that fuel should be feeding from the center tank. Consider thefollowing situation:
    Cruise flight with fuel in the center tank and center tank fuel pumps on. The crew notices animbalance occurring between the main tanks. Obviously fuel should be feeding from the centertank. However, if the center tank fuel pump output pressure is less than the output pressure fromthe main tank pumps, fuel may start feeding from one of the main tanks. As fuel pumps age, theoutput pressure may decrease slightly or may be less than a newly installed pump.A potential concern that could arise in this situation is a possible fuel leak. A fuel leak can beanalyzed by comparing total fuel on board against the flight plan predicted fuel at a waypoint or successive waypoints. If the fuel score at the waypoints is validated, one could rule out a fuel leak.Once a fuel leak has been ruled out, corrective action for this situation would be to accomplish theFUEL BALANCING Supplemental procedure. This procedure allows the center tank fuel pump onthe low main fuel tank side to resume override pressure. The left and right main fuel tanks willremain unbalanced at the amount at which the low main fuel tank pumps are selected OFF. Whencenter tank fuel is depleted, the main tanks will begin balancing.
    Which type of aviation accident has resulted in the largest number of fatalities? Hopefully, from thetitle of the article you guessed Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT). Ground Proximity WarningSystems have drastically reduced CFIT accidents, however, CFIT still accounts for the largestnumber of fatalities. Data on the B757/767 fleet shows that we continue to have concerns with EGPWS cautions andwarnings, and that crew response to these warnings is sometimes inadequate. EGPWS cautionand warning alerts are in the Top 5 Safety concerns within our Airline.As of the end of 2009, the B757/767 fleet had a total of 21 Terrain pull up events. There are twoareas relating to CFIT which the current GPWS does not address. These are rapidly rising terrainand terrain contact in a landing configuration. The new generation Enhanced Ground ProximityWarning System (EGPWS) provides protection for these situations with two additional features.These are “Look-ahead” terrain alerting with HSI display and “Terrain Clearance Floor.”
  29. Look-Ahead Terrain AlertingThe EGPWS provides caution and warning-level alerts
    to the flight crew about potential terrainconflicts earlier than is possible with the basic GPWS. The alerts are based primarily on the aircraftposition and barometric altitude (from the Captain’s altimeter) information passed to the EGPWS.This is compared to the EGPWS terrain database which contains the location of almost all terrainworldwide. Two alerting envelopes are computed with this information. One corresponding to acaution-level alert (see Figure 6) and the other to a warning-level alert (see Figure 7).The look-ahead caution alert is provided approximately 40 to 60 seconds before a potentialterrain conflict and the crew will hear “CAUTION TERRAIN, CAUTION TERRAIN” or “CAUTIONOBSTACLE, CAUTION OBSTACLE.” The correct crew response is to immediately alter the flightpath sufficiently to stop alert, per the AOM, Chapter 4 (EGPWS CFIT WARNING AND CAUTIONS).The look-ahead warning alert is provided approximately 20 to 30 seconds before a terrain conflictand the crew will hear “TERRAIN, TERRAIN, PULL-UP” or “OBSTACLE, OBSTACLE, PULL-UP.”The correct crew response is to comply with the CFIT Recovery Maneuver. The CFIT RecoveryManeuver is MANDATORY except in clear, day VMC when the flight crew can IMMEDIATELYand UNEQUIVOCALLY confirm safe terrain/obstacle clearance, AOM, Chapter 4 (EGPWS CFITWARNING AND CAUTIONS). The look-ahead distance varies with ground speed. As ground speedincreases, the alerting distance increases to provide roughly equivalent alerting times at all speeds.
  30. Terrain DisplayThe EGPWS terrain display is designed to increase flight crew awareness of the surroundingterrain. The terrain display can be selected manually by the flight crew or displayed automaticallywhen a look-ahead caution or warning alert activates. The terrain is shown on the HSI in dotted
    patterns of red, amber and green, with the colors indicating the height of the terrain relative tothe current aircraft altitude.• Dotted red - This pattern indicates significantly high terrain (greater than 2000′ above theaircraft altitude), which is a potential threat if the terrain is displayed ahead of the aircraft.• Dotted amber - This pattern also indicates a potential threat if displayed ahead of the aircraft,signifying terrain extending anywhere from 500′ below the current aircraft altitude to 2000′above. Thicker dot densities of amber indicate higher terrain in this range (1000 - 2000′above the aircraft).• Dotted green - This pattern indicates terrain for which the aircraft has sufficient clearanceat its current altitude (500′ or more), but which is close enough that the flight crew shouldbe aware of its presence.
  31. To reduce clutter on the display, any terrain more than 2000′ below the aircraft is not displayed,and instead remains the background color of black.
    In limited areas of the world, for which theEGPWS terrain database may not yet contain terrain data, a dotted magenta pattern will showon the display. The EGPWS uses the weather radar data bus to display terrain colors. Terrainand weather radar data cannot be displayed simultaneously on an individual display; however, theCaptain’s and First Officer’s map displays are independent, so weather can be selected on onedisplay while terrain is displayed on the other. The dotted patterns of the terrain are designed tohelp the flight crew differentiate between the terrain display and the weather radar display. When acaution or warning look-ahead alert is activated, the terrain display is enhanced with solid amberand red patterns. These solid patterns highlight the conflicting terrain and signify the urgency of theconflict. For the caution alert, the terrain creating the conflict in front of the aircraft is displayed insolid amber, as well as terrain of equal or greater elevation 90° left and right of the nose of theaircraft. This emphasizes potential terrain conflicts if a turn were to be initiated.
  32. For the warning alert, terrain creating the conflict in front of the aircraft is displayed in solid red,as well as terrain of equal or greater elevation 90° left and right
    of the nose of the aircraft. TheCaptain and First Officer can manually select the terrain display so they can monitor the terrainduring a departure or approach. If terrain is not displayed on either the Captain’s or First Officer’smap display when a look-ahead caution or warning alert activates, terrain (with the appropriatedotted and solid color patterns) is automatically displayed if the weather radar switch is on. Theonly difference on the B767 tail N335 and SUBSEQUENT is that Weather Radar does NOT have tobe selected first before selecting Terrain because they are single action select switches and thelast selection is what remains displayed on the HSI. The auto pop up feature still works providedthe Weather Radar is selected.
  33. Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF)In addition to the look-ahead alerting envelopes,
    the EGPWS has an additional element ofprotection, the terrain clearance floor. The TCF is an alerting envelope around each airport basedon aircraft radio altitude (see Figure 8). On a normal three-degree glide path to a runway, theaircraft will remain well clear of the TCF alerting envelope. However, if the aircraft penetrates theTCF, even in a landing configuration, the EGPWS activates.
  34. Remember, as discussed above, the EGPWS receives a barometric altitude input from theCaptain’s altimeter.
    If the Captain failed to set QNH during the descent and approach checklist, aTerrain Clearance Floor (TCF) alert may be triggered. This would happen primarily when the QNHwas higher than 29.92 and the Captain failed to set QNH. Even though on glideslope, the Captain’saltimeter would be indicating lower than aircraft actual altitude.Don’t let it happen to you, fly safe and check six!
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