Ling test 2 notes.txt

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Ling test 2 notes.txt
2011-10-11 18:38:58
Lin test

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  1. What is the definition of a sentence?
    the larest unit of meaning.
  2. What is another name for words?
  3. What is a morpheme?
    the smallest unit of meaning. can be free or bound.
  4. what is the difference between a free and bound morpheme?
    cut(s). (s) is bound to the free (cut). bound has to be combined with another morphem.
  5. what is syntax?
    the coreet order of the bits that make up a sentence.
  6. What is phonology?
    the smallest units of sound that contain meaning
  7. Morphology?
    the study of the behavior of morphemes
  8. Lexicon?
    Your vocabulary. it is the most loose meaning we loose words and gain words all the time.
  9. Smeah ntics?
    study of meaning that is used by humans to express themselves through language.
  10. What are the two types of Morphemes?
    Lexical and Gramatical
  11. What is an example of a lexical morpheme?
    like marry to marriage. the ending is changed which changes the meaning
  12. What is an example of a gramatical morpheme? explain.
    like cat(s). the s does not change the meaning just the plurality of the word.
  13. What is the differnece between form vs. function?
    form is cats(the s). Function to make cat plural.
  14. what is an Allomorph?
    Same function can have different forms.
  15. what is an example of an allomorph?
    cats, dogs, horeses all use s but with different words.
  16. What is a Phoming (phonology)
    the study of sounds with out direct meaning. can be broken up intosounds which do not directly carry meaning.
  17. What is a phoning set?
    combination of counds that follow rules.
  18. What is phenetic?
    the study of the production and classification of human speech sounds.
  19. WHat does IPA stand for?
    International Phonetic Association.
  20. What did the IPA what to do?
    wanted to set up a symble for each sound.
  21. What is Graphemic Representation?
    covential Representation of the sounds in a language.
  22. WHat is an alophom?
    the diffent relization of the same symbole. like no you didunt
  23. What is a minimal pair?
    test for phomen pairs, two words that sound the same except a certant sound.
  24. what is an example of a minimal pair?
    Big and Pig.
  25. what is an implosive?
    are wen air comes inward instead of pushing out as in explosive. usually in white suthern speech.
  26. What is a fricative?
    if we constrict the air stream, we get the continual compressed air that is a fricative
  27. What is an affricate?
    start as stops then continue like fricatives. usually combinations of sounds that are common
  28. What is Nasale constants?
    allow air to exit nose.
  29. WHat is a lateral,
    Means side, the air stream comes down sides of tong
  30. What is a roll?
    roll our toung back
  31. What is a flapped/ tap?
    flap your tong on top of your mouth
  32. what is a ~
    a trill that means quickly reapeated like the r's is spanish that I cant do
  33. what are primary vowels?
    goes from lip spreading to lip rounding
  34. What are secondary vowels?
    Goes from lip rounding to spreading
  35. What are Cardinal vowels?
    8 primary and 8 secondary. they are gien numbers (not really going to use this)
  36. what is a Diphthong?
    to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable.
  37. What is symantics more about? (sound/looks or content)
    is more about content.
  38. WHat is meaning?
    the content of what is said. the meaning of a word or of several words ora sentence.
  39. Denotation?
    like a dictionary definition. (winter is a season)
  40. Conotation?
    the speakers attitude towards the word. (winter is cold) (cold is subjective)
  41. SIgnified?
    the idea that a sign evokes (conotation)
  42. referent?
    like a denotation
  43. What is the diffent meanings of conotation and denotation of words?
    they are not different meanings just parts of the same meaning.
  44. What is polysemy,
    two or more related meanings. Like bright can meant light or smart
  45. What does Homophony mean?
    entirally distict meaning
  46. what is a synonyms?
    two words that mean the same thing.such as youth and adalesence
  47. Antonyms?
    words that mean the oposite. boy and gir, cold and hot
  48. what is paraphase?
    2 senences that have the same meaning
  49. Entailment?
    sentance A&B a entails b if the truth of a proves teh truth of b.
  50. Contradiction?
    thruth of a makes b false
  51. Fuzzy consepts?
    Rih is an example. there iso definite amount that makes someone rih. there is no clear line.
  52. Graded membership?
    (protypical) like a sparrow is more of a bird than an osterage. (all relative)
  53. Lexicalization?
    When u put a context into a word. (encoding). swagger is an example because it combines motion and maner.
  54. Gramaticalization?
    Gramatical words put concept into them. like 'ed makes a word past tense.
  55. Evidentialty,
    like how you know something
  56. Extra liguistics?
    Non language meanings
  57. Presuppostion?
    an assumtion or beliefe based on a word choice.
  58. What is a maxim?
    Rules for communication. lots of times we do these unknowingly. also could be a wise saying
  59. What are the four types of maxims?
    relevence, quality, quantity, manor
  60. WHat is the maxim of relevence?
    to be relevent with what you way. Want to come to the party? NO I have homework to do.
  61. What is the maxim of quality?
    Make your contribution true. Its snowing in austin always! (wrong)
  62. What is the maxim of quantity?
    Dont say to much or too little (be appropriate).
  63. What is the maxim of manor?
    avoid ambuguity or teacher starts talking to english students in russian. (not appropriate)
  64. What is Rhotic Speech?
    Speech in which an r is made following a vowel or another constantant
  65. : and ^ up and down mean what?
    lengthen the sound.
  66. what does ` do?
    stresses the sylabol
  67. what does ~ mean?
    makes the sound nasal like
  68. What is a Palisamy-
    meanings are related like. Mother can mean biological or the action of being a mother.
  69. Hamophics,
    two meanings from the same word. Bat