Toxicology

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Author:
timothyowens
ID:
108196
Filename:
Toxicology
Updated:
2011-10-11 19:18:59
Tags:
FE Toxicology
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Description:
Toxicology for the Biology portion of the FE exam
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  1. Reproductive Toxiciity
    • 1. Effect on male and female reproductive systems:
    • - Male: a) affect division of sperm cells
    • b) development of healthy sperm
    • - Female: Affects:
    • a) the endocrine system
    • b) the brain
    • c) the reproductive track
  2. Immunotoxicity:
    • - Toxic affects on the immune system include:
    • a) the lympth system
    • b) the blood cells
    • c) antibodies in the blood
  3. Neurotoxicity 5
    • 1. The toxic effects on the nervous system
    • a) the CNS - Central Nervous System
    • b) the PNS - Peripheral Nervous System
    • 2. CNS includes brain and spinal cord
    • 3. PNS includes the remaining nerves - Sensory and Motor
    • 4. Neurotoxic Effects - two basic types
    • a) Destruction of nerve cells
    • b) interference with neurotransmiters
  4. Lethal Dose or Lethal Concentrations
    • 1. Concentration of toxicant at which a specific percent of test animals die.
    • 2. Expressed as the mass of toxicant per unit mass of test animal LD50 implies 50% of animals died.
  5. Pathogens 6
    • 1. Many infectious diseases caused by ...
    • 2. Found in fecal wastes
    • 3. Transmitted and transfered through wastewater
    • 4. Some shellfish concentrate pathogenic organism in tissue -> toxic
    • 5. Pathogens: some protozoa, viruses, helminths (worms )
    • 6. Not all microorganisms are pathogens. Some are useful in wastewater treatment.
  6. Nephrotoxicity 8
    • 1. Excrete ammonia as urea getting rid of metabolic wastes
    • 2. Maintain blood pH by exchanging hydrogen ions for Sodium ions as needed
    • 3. Maintain ion and water balance by excreting ions and water
    • 4. Secrete hormones to regulate blood pressure
    • 5. Like the liver, the kidneys detoxify
    • 6. Lead, Mercury, Cadmium - cause cell function death -- metals can be stored in kidneys interfering with functioning enzymes.
    • 7. Chloroform and other organic material -> cell dysfunction, death, cancer.
    • 8. Ethylene Glycol can cause renal failure from obstruction of normal flow of liquid through kidneys.
  7. Microbe Categories 4
    • 1. Phototrophes - rely only on the Sun for energy
    • 2. Chemotrophs - extract energy from organic or inorgaic oxidation/Reduction
    • 3.Organotrophs - use organic materials
    • 4. Lithotrophs - oxidize inorganic compounds
  8. Bacteria Growth - More efficient temperatures
    • 1. Most microorganisms in wastewater treatment processes : Bacteria
    • 2. Treatment plant conditions so: Chemoheterotrophs predominate
    • 3. Bacteria type ---> Best temp range 4 growth
    • psychrophiles -----> below 68 degrees F (20 C)
    • mesophiles -----> 68 deg F (20C) to 113 F (45F)
    • thermophiles --> 113 deg F (45 C) to 140 F (60 C )
    • stenothermofiles -> avove 140 deg F ( 60 C)
  9. Heterotrophs vs. Autotrophs
    • Heterotrophs - Use organic material as a carbon supply
    • Autotrophs -Require only carbon dioxide to supply their carbon needs
  10. Toxic Effects o Eye
    • 1. Wide variety of Toxic Substances
    • 2. Through contact with Cornea cause damage to eye
  11. Carcinogen Toxicants 5
    • 1. No apparent threshold
    • 2. Any dose is considered to have an effect. May be unmeasured at low doses
    • 3. No safe exposure level
    • 4. Linear relationship ( Dose Response )
    • 5. Lead is an example of such a toxicant
  12. Dose - Response Relationships 3
    • 1. Relates the response of an organism to increasing levels of Toxicants
    • 2. Toxicity Test Objectives: Establish Dose Response Curve.
    • 3. Dose Response Curves
    • a) Response: The Ordinate - y axis
    • b) Dose: The abscissa - x axis
  13. Features of the Dose Response Curve:
    • 1. No Observed Effect - upper end range Threshold.
    • - the No affect level (NEL) or No observed effect level (NOEL)
    • 2. Lowest Observed Effect - The dose where minor effects can first be measured (LOEl)
    • 3. No Observed Adverse Effect - where effects related to the response being measured 1st can be measured. (NOAEL)
    • 4. Lowest Observed Adverse Effect - Where effects 1st measured similar to higher doses (LOAEL)
    • 5. Frank Effect - where max effects are observed with little change for change in dose (FEL)
  14. Heterotrophic Bacteria
    • 1. Use organic material as both an energy source and a carbon source.
    • 2. Subdivided depending on free O2 use:
    • a) Aerobes - Obligate Aerobes require free dissolved O2.
    • b) Anaerobes - Obligate Anaerobes oxidize in complete absence of O2.
    • c) Facultative Bacteria -
    • - use dissolved O2 when available
    • - behave anaerobicly inarobic conditions

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