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Which two important qualities must each survey questions have?
- 1. mutually exclusive
- 2. exhaustive
What are three benefits that make ratio measurements highly valued?
- 1. You can calculate proportions and ratios.
- 2. You can use more powerful statistics.
- 3. You can change it to any other level of measurement if you want/need; you can’t move up to ratio if you measured at a lower level.
Two things to remember about LOM:
- 1. always choose the highest level of measurement
- 2. Higher level of measurement translates to more precision, but not necessarily more accuracy.
What are double barreled questions?
- Ex. Do you root for the Green Bay Packers and the Detroit Lions?
- Choose one or other. Separate.
5 Important things to remember about asking questions:
- 1. Avoid negative items
- 2. Respondent Must be Competent to answer
- 3. respondent must be willing to answer
- 4. avoid biased items and terms
- 5. short items are best
True Score + Error = Observed Score
Error would be random error or systematic error
What does random error effect?
What does systematic error effect?
What are three types of reliability tests?
- 1. Inter-item reliability test
- 2. Test-retest
- 3. Split half method
What are two ways to improve an index?
- 1. item analysis: assessment of whether each of items included makes its own contribution to the measure
- *throw out items w low correlations
- 2. External validity: include in your survey things that are not part of the index but should correlate with the index.
Why is the Likert scale, not a scale?
because answers to different questions are treated as if they indicate different intensities of the variable under study.
What are the four dialects of social science?
- 1. nomothetic
- 2. quantitative
- 3. pure
- 4. deductive
What are the four major constraints on social research?
- 1. Scientific
- 2. Administration
- 3. Ethical
- 4. Political
What are the 5 guidelines for ethical conduct?
- 1 Voluntary
- 2. No harm
- 3. Anominity and Confedentiality
- 4. Deception-debriefing
- 5. analysis and reporting
What is the difference between a necessary cause and a sufficient cause?
Necessary cause: represents a condition that must be present for the effect to follow.
Sufficient cause: represents a condition that, if it present, guarantees the effect in question.
What are the six units of analysis/observation?
- 1. individuals
- 2. groups
- 3. artifacts
- 4. social interactions
- 5. geographic
- 6. organizations
What are two examples of false reasoning under analysis?
- Reductionism: A fault of some researchers: a strict limitation (reduction) of the kinds of concepts to be considered relevant to the phenomenon under study.
- Ecological fallacy: The ecological fallacy occurs when you make conclusions about individuals based only on analyses of group data.
What does a trend study track?
trend study tracks a variable across time by looking at surveys from different times.
a. What does a panel study track?
b. What is an issue to look for in a panel study?
- a. examines the exact same set of people over time.
- b. panel attrition
What is a cohort study?
cohort study examines specific sub-populations as they change over time
Each of the three groups shown here is a different sample of the same sub-population, being surveyed at three different times.
What are two reasons journalism articles aren't more clear?
- 1. Scientists are writing to each other, often using
- specialized language.
- 2. Scientists are not given very much space in which to
- express themselves.
What is panel attrition?
Some of the respondents studied in the first wave of the survey may not participate in later waves.
What are the three most common purposes of exploratory studies?
- to satisfy the researcher's curiosity
- to test the feasibility of undertaking a more extensive study
- to develop the methods to be employed in any sebsequent study.
What are the three purposes of research?