Summer 1944, the British aided factions within Greece. British helped right wing groups in Greece as they found the Communist lefts getting support from soviet union.
· By Feb 1945, were ready to reach an agreement. Election would be held in next year March 1946. Brought into power right wing politicians. They restored to king of Greece back in power. British helped Greece maintain a right wing non-communist government.
1946, Guerrilla warfare continued.
British over 1946 - 1947
they were helping Turkey and Greece. British were bankrupt at the time. US was rich, but Brits were not. By 1947, under Clement Atley, they could not maintain what they were doing around the world
Feb 21, 1947
brits delivered note to state department that as of april 1, 1947 the brits would have to stop giving support and US would have to do it. US agreed to move into easter Mediterranean and continue what the British were doing
Truman asked for what when?
March 12, 1947 Truman went to congress asking to appropriate 14mil to Turkey and Greece as military and economic aid. In opposition to a communist threat
- Truman was not just talking about their particular situations, but also the global situations
- Truman had been advised by Arthur Vandenburg. Encouraged Truman to scare American people to win public support for appropriations. Truman said - at present moment nearly every nation much choose between different ways of life. one as will of majority, free elections, free speech, religion. second way is the will of a minority forced on the
majority, controlled press, fixed elections. I believe the US must support free people. This was the heart of the Truman doctrine. He never refered to Soviet union but everyone knew what he was talking about.
- congress appropriated the money
Truman called to defending free states from
external and internal
threats. This can involve you in fighting in all kinds of nations all over the
This worried American Advisor George Kennan. He did not like global articulation of American policy.
· He was not opposed to containing communism, but did not think we should go all over for it
· Dean Acheson wanted a nuanced policy as well. Did not think US should be involved everywhere.
o March 4, 1947 - said aid should be given according to individual circumstances.
Where was this used later?
· By 1960's. Vietnam this happened. They cited the Truman doctrine as an explanation for what we are doing in Vietnam.
By 1947, the Truman administration established a new foreign policy.
· this is in direct contrast to assumptions by Franklin Roosevelt that US would come back after WWII.
· Kennan advocated building up western Europe. to stop spread of communism, then Europeans must enjoy economic prosperity. This plan would be dealt with by the Marshall Plan.
1947- Truman in second term appointed. Who was sec of state?
· George Marshal as secretary of State.
At Potsdam conference they agreed to keep meeting.
· Thus a following conference was held in 1945. Showed differences between soviets and west. Molotov wanted Germans to have a gov so that it may become a communist one.
Kennen made a Economic Recovery program to combat this
· US should not impose economic recovery program. Encourage Europeans to work together.
· Should include eastern Europeans and Moscow could participate if they embraced a capitalist society
· could not have western European economic recovery without economic recovery in germany
o Very different from Morgenthau plan
· Outline framework for European economic program financed by USA.
· This became Marshall plan
· Late 40-1950s poured billions into European economies. It was restricted to western Europe because stalin decided not to participate and wouldn’t allow eastern Europe govs to participate.
Czechloslovakia had interest in Marshall plan but it was stifled by soviets.
Containment was expressed in
· North Atlantic treaty (April 1949),
· Truman doctrine, and
· Marshall plan.
North Atlantic Alliance had two major purposes
· Deterrent against aggression. If soviets knew west was united, they may not commit aggression to Western Europe.
· Defense - all members would join to fight. Each member of NATO would respond to protect country that was victim of attack.
· March 16, 1948 for the mutual defense of Britain, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands
o Americans encouraged this. Day after signing of Brussels treaty, Truman made a statement endorsing this treaty.
· many pro western politicians.
What happened to the Czech foreign minister?
· committed suicide by jumping out at window. The window out of which he jumped was very
high up, and a very small window. There was no ladder in the room, so it seemed from western point of view that he had a little help. Deep suspicions in US about his suicide. Americans hardened their attitude on Soviets because of what they were doing in Czech and other parts of eastern Europe.
What was the soviet response to the Marshall plan?
· tightening grip on eastern Europe
By June 1948, new policies focusing on western zones in germany called what?
· for unification of economies of western germany.
Trumans administration looked to western Europe, and Europeans looked to USA
· June 11, 1948, Arthur someone called for greater collaboration between US and Europe
Throughout entire 19th and early 20th century, Americans never had a peace time military commitment. This changed with North Atlantic Treaty
Truman saw it as a deterrent to soviet aggression.
· April 4, 1949 the North Atlantic treaty was signed. An armed attack in Europe or North America would be an attack on them all. Each party will assist. If one partner did not fulfil its commitment, then that did not allow others to drop
out as well. Foundation for NATO
George Kennan became critic on the inside. Concerned about what?
· military build up that may come along with north atlanitc treaty. Supported the treaty but if too much emphasis may be put into military, then economic recovery may be harder. He thought Marshall plan was much more important than military expansion.
Ultimate deterrent that the Truman Administration hoped was what?
· the Atomic bomb. Americans and British had monopoly on Atomic bombs. this Anglo-American dominance on atomic weapons would be an effective deterrent. don't need large number of American troops because of a bomb. Truman did not anticipate expanding alliance to major military commitment.
Assumption in Truman Administration was what?
· Eventually Soviets would have an atomic bomb in the distant future. August 1949, the soviets tested their first atomic device. This was much earlier than anyone in Washington expected. Soviets
gained access to American and british info through espianage. This sped up American production of H-bomb in 1952. Soviets in 1953.
There was fear that Americans may under or overreact.
· Americans may not react now that soviets have atomic bombs. May not protect western Europe.
Americans on the other hand may start using atomic bombs before they really should. Europeans would be victims of atomic warfare.
Beginning of Korean war also undermined European confidence.
· June 1950, North Korea attacked South Korea. Truman thought Stalin was behind this aggression. In practice Stalin had not encouraged nor discouraged it. This all raised the stakes