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According to the textbook, visual communication
relies on what two things?
Eyes that function and on a brain that interprets all the sensory information received
What was Aldous Huxley's theory he outlined in his
book "The Art of Seeing.”? Know the 3 components.
- “Sensing plus selecting plus perceiving equals
- seeing.”; sensing, selecting and perceiving
Who was one of the first scientists to write
significantly about cognitive illusions?
Herman von Helmholtz
What are the three major types of cognitive
Ambiguous, distorting, and paradox
What is significant about the FedEx logo?
An arrow between the “E” and the “x” that is impossible not to see once the illusion is revealed
What are the three types of visual messages the
human brain processes?
Mental, direct, and mediated
According to the textbook, why are dreams often
Mental images are not translated into words. You will not remember much through visual messages alone. Memory happens when you think about picture using words and images.
What did Aldous Huxley write in his book "The
Art of Seeing" that sums up visual communication?
The more you know, the more you see.”
For what scientific experiment did David Hubel and
Torsten Wiesel share a Nobel Prize? What were they trying to study?
- Putting the head of a slightly anesthetized cat into a vice so that it’s forced to watch a simple slide show while you poke the back of its brain with a
- microelectrode. Provided clues to how the brain sees images provided by our eyes.
According to researchers, the brain responds
quickly and easily to what four major attributes of all viewed objects?
- form, depth, and movement.
What British physician was the first to link color
and the human eye? In what year did he do this?
Thomas Young, 1801.
In 1851, German physiologist and physicist Hermann
von Helmholtz invented the ophthalmoscope. What is its purpose?
Enabled doctors to see inside a person’s eye.
Every color we can see can be made with what three
basic, primary colors? What are the colors used for illustrations on paper?
- Red, Yellow, and Blue; magenta, yellow, cyan and
What are the three different methods which can be
used to describe color? Be able to explain each.
- Objective: or scientific, describes colors rests on the
- assumption that the perception of color is a result of various light
- wavelengths stimulating the cones along the back of the eyes’ retinas.
- Comparative: the color that another
- color is compared with must be accepted universally as a standard
- Subjective: most symbolic, a person’s mental state or
- association with an object strongly affects the emotional response to a color
What are three other types of attributes/forms the
brain responds to?
Dots, lines, and shapes.
According to researchers, what are the 8 factors
which work singularly or in combination to give viewers a sense of depth?
- Space, size, color, lighting, textural gradients,
- interposition, time, and perspective.
Of the 8 factors that give viewers a sense of
depth, which is the most complex? Why?
- Perspective; because it is equal parts brain
- function and learned behavior.
What are the 4 types of movement? Understand and be
able to give an example of each.
- motion not connected with an mage presented in the media. Actual movement a
- seen by a viewer of some other person, animal, or object
- Apparent: example, motion picture
- films. A series of still images put together sequentially for film, videotape,
- or digital media and moved through a viewing device at a fast speed.
- Graphic: the motion of the eyes as
- they scan a field of fiew or the way a graphic designer positions elements so
- that the eyes move throughout a layout. An eye will usually follow a line, a
- slow curve, or a horizontal shape before it follows other graphic elements.
- Another example is magazine covers.
- Implied: motion that a viewer
- perceives ina still, single image witout
- any movement of an object, image, or eye. Visual vibration (frenetic, pulsating
- results from optical or “op” art)