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Visual communication midterm chapter 3
What is Max Wertheimer's famous statement that
describes his Gestalt theory?
“The whole is different from the sum of its parts.”
the four fundamental principles of grouping which allow the brain to understand
a scene? Be able to describe each.
objects that look
similar will be automatically grouped together by the brain
the brain more
closely associate objects close to each other than it does two objects that are
the brain does
not prefer sudden or unusual changes in the movement of a line; seeks a smooth
direct a viewer’s
eyes toward or away from a graphic element in a picture or design
Who helped invent a genre of photography known as
Gestalt help change the front page layouts of newspapers? Be able to describe
the layouts before and after the theory.
: newspapers were a
mind-numbing collection of grey words on a page separated by columns, with a
small headline and smaller subheads, no pictures or breaks
: varied collection of
different sized headlines, columns, and pictures; easily differentiated.
Why has the
gestalt approach been criticized?
For describing perceptions rather than giving
explanations of how these perceptions actually give meaning to an image.
Semiotics? Who was one of the first people to propose this? (Hint: His name
contains that of an animal.)
Semiotics is the study or science of signs ;
Augustine of Hippo.
Who is considered to be the founder of the field of
Ferdinand de Saussure
the three types of signs? Be able to give an example of each?
they most closely
resemble the thing they are meant to represent ; example
: cave paintings of
logical, common sense connection to the thing or idea they represent rather
than a direct resemblance to the object ; example
: the sun’s shadow implies the
movement of time, footprints
have to be
taught, social and cultural
considerations influence them greatly ; example
: flags, logos, music
What are Asa Berger's four types of codes? Be able
to describe each and give an example of each.
: a collection of
signs that cause the viewer to make assumptions about what is seen ; example
magazine ad for cotton comforters
: a group of
signs that cause the viewer to make mental comparisons ; example
: figures of
a transfer of
meaning from one set of signs to another ; example
: liquor, lipstick, and
cigarettes linked with possible sexual conquest
that combine to form a new, composite message ; example
: televised music videos
and the advertisements
What are the mental activities cultural anthropologist
Carolyn Bloomer identified which affect visual perception?
Memory, projection, expectation, selectivity,
habituation, salience, dissonance, culture, and words.