Biology

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Author:
nicolej12
ID:
10830
Filename:
Biology
Updated:
2010-03-18 12:30:16
Tags:
Biolog
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Exam 2-2
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  1. Living Organisms
    • are made of cells
    • egg+sperm= zygote
    • these cells divide and divide
    • 1-2-4-8

    Always making new cells by dividing old cells/ whole life
  2. What is a cell?
    • Cell is smallest unite of life-take it apart and its not alive
    • Cell Cycle- normal process of controlled cell division
    • Nucleus with DNA
    • Organelles
    • Communicate with other cells
  3. Cell Cycle
    • Orderly process of growth and division into 2 cells
    • G1- makes organelles, gets bigger, 8 hours
    • S- the DNA is replied all 46 chromosomes are copied
    • G2- more growth, getting ready to divide
    • M- mitosis nucleus divides
    • Cytogenesis- cell divide
  4. DONT CONFUSE SISTER CHROMATIDS with HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES.
  5. Sister Chromotids
    • 2 identical copies of a chromosome connected by a centromere
    • Twin
    • Same alleles duplicated
    • Still homologous pair
    • Still code for same thing just different versions
  6. Homologous Chromosomes
    • Carry the same genes
    • Code for the same thing (gene)
  7. Checkpoints
    • Proteins check
    • Proteins decide if the cell should go on or not
    • G1- Do we need new cells? Are growth factors present? Do we have sufficient nutrients? Is the cell big enough?
    • STOP
    • Interphase
    • G2- Is the cell big enough? Was the DNA replicated correctly? If not commit suicide- apoptosis. Fix DNA if only small errors
    • STOP
    • Mitosis- is mitosis proceeding correctly.
  8. Apoptosis
    Cell Suicide
  9. Cells Don't Have to Divide
    • Nerve cells stop at checkpoint
    • RBC- 20 million/sec- new ones every three months
    • Kidney- wear out so divide frequently
    • Live- if needed can divide. Otherwise remain in G1- only makes when needed
    • Development- lots of division and apoptosis
  10. DNA Replication
    • Interphase- DNA is copied (not actually dividing)
    • Mitosis- DNA is split equally into two daughter cells
    • Cytokinesis- Parent cell is cleaved in half
  11. Cancer
    • A loss of control over the cell cycle, a failure at the checkpoint.
    • Normal DNA, normal genes, normal proteins.
    • Change in DNA, change in genes, change in protein
    • Proteins check the cell and regulate cell cycle
    • If proteins are changed because the DNA is changed they don't regulate the cell cycle
  12. Tumor
    Abnormal mass of cells
  13. Benign Tumor
    • (kind)
    • Usually reaches a certain size then stops.
    • Mole
    • Does not invade tissue- sits on top of it
    • Usually does not cause cancer tumors
  14. Malignant Tumor
    • (Wicked)
    • Continues to grow, does not reach a certain size and stop.
    • Invades tissue.
    • Not incapsulated
    • Is Cancer
  15. Metastatsis
    Some of the cells let go and move through the blood stream to another part of your body
  16. Mutations in three types of genes cause cancer
    • Proto-oncogenes
    • Oncogene
    • Common oncogene
  17. Proto-Oncogene
    • (Before Cancer Gene)
    • Genes that code for proteins that stimulate cell division
    • Normal genes that everyone has
    • Operate at G1
    • Makes cell cycle go
    • Makes growth factor receptor, bunch of things for sending cells on
  18. Oncogene
    • Cancer gene
    • Mutated proto-oncogene
    • Stimulates division when normal proto-oncogene would not
    • Stuck accelerator
  19. Common Oncogene
    is BRAF- also HER2- receptor acts as if gf there when its not
  20. Tumor Suppressor Gene
    • Normal genes that code for proteins that inhibit cell division
    • Operate at G2 checkpoint
    • Stopping cell division (broken pedal)
    • Mutated tumor suppressor (broken break pedal)
  21. Stability Genes
    • Operate at G2 and Mitosis checkpoint
    • To repair damage, proteins cut out wrong DNA and puts correct DNA in
  22. Mutations and Cancer
    • It takes more than one mutation in a single cell to cause cancer
    • Stability gene- mechanic
    • Stability genes keep mutations to a minimum and when they are inactive mutations in other genes occur at a higher rate
    • Mutations turn off normal contact inhibition gene
    • Mutations turn off angiogenesis gene (blood new creation)
    • Turns off telomerase gene- (end of chromosomes)
    • Look in notes!
  23. Hereditary Cancer
    • 5-10%
    • Dont inherit cancer you inherit the chance to get cancer (cancer risk)
    • Occurs in first degree relatives (blood)
    • All other cancer is called spontaneous cancer- not inherited
    • Bilateral- both lungs
    • Recurrent- because all the other cells still have the one mutated gene
    • Inherited at a young age
    • Older you get the more likely you will get it except past 80
  24. Causes of Cancer
    • May take 20 years after exposure before you find it
    • Carcinogen causes cancer
    • Chemicals- cigarette, diet (not sure how)
    • Radiation- uv light from sun, naturally occurring gas called radon- lung cancer, melanoma- deadly skin cancer
    • Viruses- 4 we know cause cancer in humans, most viruses that cause cancer in lab animals don't cause cancer in humans. -HPV causes cervical cancer. -Hepatitis B and C causes liver cancer. -Lymphocytotrophic virus, human t cell leukemia, AIDS patients- Epstein barr virus, hodgkins lymphoma AIDS patients
  25. Detection of Cancer
    • Pain and Scars
    • Lump
    • Biopsy- when they find some the suspicious take a chunk of the body to find cells
    • Proteins
    • PSA levels get high when you have prostate cancer- protein found in urine.
  26. Getting Rid of Cancer- Surgery
    • Take out cancer, if they can reach it
    • Have to be able to remove some tissue the cancer is in
  27. Getting Rid of Cancer- Chemotherapy
    • 1. Targets rapidly moving diving cells- cancer cells, hair cells, lining of mouth, red blood cells, skin cells
    • 2. Anti-Angiogenesis Drugs- (blood new) If you can stop new blood cells from forming you can stop cancer from growing. Tumor needs angiogenesis to grow.
    • 3. Anti-Telomerase Drug- (caps that protect end of chromosomes) Clinical trials, keeps cells from being immortal
    • 4. Rational Drugs- Test cancer and test drugs against it. Trying to make a drug to just affect cancer cells
  28. Getting Rid of Cancer- Radiation
    • Damages cells in high doses kills cells
    • Used with shallower cancers
    • Cancers where you have to go through another organism
  29. Getting Rid of Cancer- Biotherapy
    • Immune system- patrol body- looking for things that are non-self
    • Goal is to get the immune system to see cancer cells as non-self cells
    • If you can do this your immune system would get rid of it
  30. Getting Rid of Cancer- Monoclonal Antibodies
    • Form of biotherapy
    • Take a mouse genetically engineer it so it makes human antibodies
    • Human cells into a mouse which then makes anti bodies against itself
    • Then take antibodies and inject it into cancer patient

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