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Know the definition of "shock advertising"
I outlined at the beginning of the presentation and be able to explain it.
- deliberately, rather than inadvertently, startles and offends its audience by
- violating norms for social values and personal ideals.”
How does "shock" messaging differ from
"associative" and "subliminal" messaging?
- Shock advertising is more in your face and is meant to “shock” or catch your
- attention while subliminal is somewhat snuck into the ad and is only seen if
- they person looks for the content.
What Benetton ads stopped the company's
controversial shock advertising campaign? What was showcased in the ads?
- United Colors of Benetton; the ad with the prison inmates and the words “Sentenced to
From the presentation, what two types of
"companies" seem to use/used shock advertising most to
Clothing and alcohol
During what decade was Johannes Gutenberg's
commercial printing press first developed?
To visual communicators, for what is British
critic, artist, and novelist John Berger best known?
- For his landmark book on visual culture, Ways
- of Seeing, which was developed into a television series for BBC.
Historian/educator David Perlmutter identified
eight ways to help understand an image. What are these? Be able to give examples.
- production: how
- was the image physically produced and how are elements combined within a frame
- content identification: what
- are the major elements and what is the story being told
- functional: what is the context for the image and how was it put to
- expressional: what emotions are conveyed by the content and how those
- feelings translated across cultures
- figurative: how are the symbols and metaphors employed and what are any
- culturally sensitive elements
- rhetorical/moral: what are the philosophical justification for making
- and showing the work and what are any responsibilities the producer has to the
- subject and viewers
- societal or period: how does the image reflect the culture and mores of
- the time it was produced and what does it communicate to future generations
- comparative: how is the image similar to previously created works and
- how does it fit within the body of work of the image creator
What are the six perspectives of visual analysis?
personal, historical, technical, ethical, cultural, and critical
What is the "ethics mantra"?
Doing your job and not causing unjust harm
How many principal ethical philosophies should be
used to analyze a picture? Be able to define these principals
- the golden rule: do onto others and you want others to do onto you
- hedonism: act to maximized pleasure now, and not worry about the future
- golden mean
- categorical imperative
- veil of ignorance
Who founded the "Hedonism Philosophy"?
What is it based on?
- Aristipuss from the Greek work for pleasure closely
- related to philosophies of nihilism and narcissism. Intellectual pursuits an
- use restraint and good judgment in their personal relationships.
What does the "Golden Mean Philosophy"
refer to? How must a viewer use this philosophy?
- Refers to finding a middle ground or a compromise between two extreme points of view
- or actions. To use the philosophy, you must first think of the two most extreme
Be able to define "Categorical
Categorical means unconditional, and imperative means that the concept should be employed with any question, extenuating circumstances, or exceptions.
The "Utilitarian Philosophy" is
considered the work of what two men?
Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill
Be able to explain how editors and news directors
use and misuse the Utilitarian Philosophy
- To justify the printing of disturbing accident
- scenes in their newspapers, magazines, on television, and on websites
What does the "Veil of Ignorance
Philosophy" consider in its practice? What is a popular phrase that defines
- Considers all people equal as if each member were wearing a veil so that such attributes
- as age, gender, ethnicity, and so on could not be determined.
What award did John Rawls receive due to his
philosophy? Who awarded it o him? What reasoning was given?
- In 1999 he received the National Humanities Medal
- from President Bill Clinton because he “helped a whole generation of learned
- Americans revive their faith in democracy itself.”