Unit 7 Pharmacodymanics

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Unit 7 Pharmacodymanics
2011-10-13 00:45:02
Unit Pharmacodynamics

Unit 7 Pharmacodynamics
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  1. the study of what the drug does to the body
  2. The desired or intended effect of a particular medication
    Therapeutic effect
  3. How the drug works in the body to produce the therapeutic effect
    Mechanism of Action
  4. undesirable effects other than the intended therapeutic effect
    Adverse Drug Effects/adverse reactions/side effects
  5. Weigh risks vs. benefits
    Tolerable/treatable vs. untolerable/deadly
  6. immune system response, body interprets drug as foreign and forms antibodies
    Allergic effect
  7. •Reaction can occur immediately or after hours/days
    –Skin erythema and rash
    –Bronchoconstriction, tachycardia, anaphylaxis
    Allergic effect
  8. •Nausea/vomiting not usually considered allergy
    (is an intolerance)
    Allergic effect
  9. body becomes accustomed to the effects of a particular drug over a period of time. Larger doses of the same drug must be taken to produce the desired effect
    Drug tolerance
  10. physiologic/physical or psychologic need for a drug
  11. occurs when 1 drug is affected in some way by another drug, food, or other substance
    Drug interactions
  12. More drugs =
    more potential reactions
  13. specific group of symptoms related to drug therapy that carry risk for permanent damage or death
    Toxic effect
  14. implies chemical-driven liver damage.
  15. is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxic chemicals and medication, on the kidneys
  16. unusual response to drug related to patient’s genetic makeup
    Idiosyncratic effect
  17. Over response, under response, opposite response
    Idiosyncratic effect´╗┐
  18. Example: Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD)
    Idiosyncratic effect
  19. Category A
    No risk to fetus
  20. No risk to animal fetus, human unknown
    (vitamins, tylenol)
    Category B
  21. Adverse effects in animals, human unknown (vitamin B12)
    Category C
  22. Fetal risk. Risk vs. benefit may be warranted (diazapam)
    Category D
  23. Positive risks – fetal abnormalities. Should not be used (accutane)
    Category X
  24. –Expectation of medication
    Psychological factors affecting drug action
  25. Metabolize drugs faster or slower
    Genetic variations in enzymes factors affecting drug action
  26. •time required for drug to elicit a therapeutic response
    –Differs based on route (IV fastest)
    Onset/onset of action
  27. time required for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response
  28. length of time drug concentration is sufficient to elicit a therapeutic response
  29. •highest blood level of a drug
    –If too high, toxicity may occur
    –Blood drawn 30-60 minutes after dose is
  30. • lowest blood level of a drug
    –If too low, may not have any therapeutic effect
    –Blood drawn 30 minutes before dose
  31. peak and trough values are measured to verify adequate drug exposure, maximize therapeutic effects, and minimize drug toxicity
    Therapeutic drug monitoring
  32. •amount of time it takes for 50% of the blood concentration of a drug to be eliminated from the body
    –Measure of the rate at which the drug is eliminated from the body
    Half life
  33. concentration of drug in the blood serum that produces the desired effect without causing
    Therapeutic range
  34. •Some medications have a ________ therapeutic range
    –Digoxin (0.5-2 ng/ml)
    –Dilantin (10-20 mcg/ml)
    –Warfarin (varies- INR 2.5-3.5)
  35. ALL __________ given in a healthcare setting require an order from a licensed practitioner
    –Even OTC
  36. –Standing order
    –PRN order
    –One time use order
    –Stat order
    Types of medication orders
  37. –Patient’s full name
    –Date and time
    –Name of drug
    –Dosage & Route
    •30 minute rule
    –Signature of person writing order, with title
    •Verbal order/telephone order
    Parts of the medication order