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  1. What is a ligament?
    connects bone to bone
  2. What is a tendon?
    connects muscle to bone
  3. What is a sprain?
    joint and ligament injury
  4. What is a strain?
    muscle or a muscle and tendon injury caused by over extension
  5. Types of closed/compound fractures
    simple, comminuted
  6. Types of closed fractures
    greenstick, spiral, transverse, simple
  7. Potential danger of fractures
    Hemorrhagic shock, Neurovascular compromise (assess distal PMS)
  8. Closed femur fractures can lose how much blood?
    • loss of 1 L of blood
    • bilateral femur fractures life threatening (load & go)
  9. Complications of closed pelvic fractures
    • extensive bleeding into abdomen or retroperitoneal
    • usually fractures in several places
    • 500cc blood loss for each fracture
    • may lacerate bladder or lg. pelvic blood vessels(abdominal aorta, femoral artery)
  10. What risk do both of these fractures present?
    pulmonary embolism, TIA, MI
  11. Dislocations are?
    Injuries involving joints
  12. Dislocations with neurovascular compromise are?
    true emergency though not life threatening
  13. How are dislocations managed?
    check PMS distal to affected joint, splint in position found
  14. What are the complications of amputations?
    • disabling & sometimes life threatening
    • potential for massive hemorrhage(most often bleeding controlled with ordinary pressure)
  15. How are amputations managed?
    • cover with damp sterile dressing, elastic wrap
    • uniform reasonable pressure across stump
    • torniquet as an absolute last resort to controll bleeding
    • retrieve amputated part(s)
  16. How would you manage the amputated parts?
    • wrap in moist gauze
    • place in plastic bag and seal
    • place in another plastic bag with ice water
    • transport part with patient
  17. How would you treat an open wound?
    • remove gross contamination
    • small wounds-flush with saline
    • sterile dress and bandage(pressure dressing if needed to control bleed)
  18. In an obvious exsanguinating hemorrhage, what changes during the initial assessment?
    ABC becomes CAB
  19. A neurovascular injury is?
    nerves and blood vessels are compromised, usually in the flexor area of major joints from dislocations and/or fractures
  20. How are impaled objects treated?
    • do not remove unless airway is obstructed
    • stabilize in place with bulking dressing and trasport in place
  21. What is Compartment Syndrome?
    swelling in the forearm or lower leg that compresses nerves & vessels
  22. S/S of Compartment Syndrome?
    • early: pain, paresthesia
    • late: 5 P's---pain, pallor, pulselessness, parathesia, paralysis
  23. Common injury associated with falls landing on feet?
    foot, lumbar spine
  24. Common injury associated with a MOI where the Patient was in the sitting postion?
    knee, hip
  25. Common injury from a fall onto the wrist?
    wrist, elbow
  26. What injury is common from a fall onto the ankle?
    ankle, proximal fibula
  27. The MOI history involves the shoulder, what is the common inury?
    shoulder, neck, chest
  28. The MOI history involves the pelvis, what is the common injury?
    pelvic, shock
  29. The MOI is a car crash, what is used to help in determining the injuries that would be commonly found?
    injuries would be based on the direction in which the car was hit
  30. What are the 4 rules of splinting?
    • stabilize in the postition found
    • realign ONLY if there is no distal PMS
    • immobilize the joint above and below
    • check distal PMS before and after splinting
  31. When and how would you splint a patient that is a load and go?
    • temporarily splint with a long spine board
    • additional splints once in transport
  32. What type of splint does an open fracture require?
Card Set
Extremities Trauma
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