Card Set Information

2011-10-16 00:04:37

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  1. Crime
    An act which injures society as a whole. Criminal procedures cannot be stopped by agreement between the parties involved and criminal liabilty cannot be contracted away.
  2. Tort
    An act which causes harm or loss to another person or to their property. A tort is a civil action which renders the person liable.
  3. Intentional Tort
    An act not by negligence but by intent (e.g. slander, libel, assult or battery)
  4. Civil Action
    An action in which the plantiff (injuried party) is an individual, partnership or corporation. (cf.- Criminal action).
  5. Libel
    A false written statement which defames or harms the reputation of another person.
  6. Slander
    The flase verbal statement about another person.
  7. Assault
    threat or violence, or the intent of injury or another person.
  8. Battery
    physical violence, injurt or contact the may cause bodily harm.
  9. Partnership
    Association by two or more persons co-workers of a business for profit. All partners hav share responsibility and profit and loss.
  10. Partnership Responsibility
    All partners are liable for the negligence of one another or of an employee
  11. Scope of Employment
    All acts necessary to carry out duties as an employee.
  12. Borrowed Servant
    An employee of one person may be loaned to another temporarily and the second employer is responbilbe for the employee's acts during this period.
  13. Principal
    One who retains an agent to act for him
  14. Agent
    An individual empowered to act for a principal as a respresentative.
  15. Best Evidence Rule
    The most valid and trustworthy source of information possible should be presented in court.
  16. Evidence
    Anything presented in court which is used to establish or disprove a fact
  17. Documentary Evidence
    Evidence in written form.
  18. Testimonal Evidence
    That which is offered in the form of written or spoken testimony.
  19. Direct Exam
    Interrogation of a witness by the party who called him to testify.
  20. Burden of Proof
    The burden of proving an assertion lies with the one initiating the legal action.
  21. Competency of Witness
    Witness is mentally sound and not under any restriction on their testimony.
  22. Deposition
    A sworn statement of fact which may be introduced into evidence.
  23. Privlieged Communication
    That which does not have to be divulged in court (e.g.: spouses, doctor-patient, lawyer-client).
  24. Veracity
    Propensity for telling the truth
  25. Expert Witness
    A person whose education or experience of a particular subject allows them to form an opinion that would not be possible without that knowledge.
  26. First Hand Knowledge
    An ordinary witness can testify only to what he knows from his own experience, not as to their opinion or what another told him (heresay).
  27. Hearsay
    Evidence which does not derive its value from the witness himself but rests on the veracity and competency of some other person.
  28. Good Samaritan Law
    A person who renders care in good faith at the scene of an emergency shall not be liale for civil damages as a result of acts or omission.
  29. Consent
    Agreement by a patient that the doctor may treat him (Consent cannot be given by a minor or incompetent person).
  30. Informed Consent
    The patient must be infomred of the dangers inherent to a procedure before he consents to it.
  31. Negliency
    Failure to conform to the standards of treatment imposed on him by the law.
  32. Contributory Negligency
    A person may not recover damages if his own negligence or failure to follow instructions contributed to the injury.
  33. Actual Causation
    Negligence by the doctor must be proven to be the actual cause for a patient to recover damage.
  34. Malpractice
    Negligency or omission to perform up to the standard of resonable care and skill of like practitioners in the same community.
  35. Statue of Limitation
    The maximum period of time that legal action can be taken. May begin from the time of the injury is incurred, or from the time the injury is discovered.
  36. Non Compos Mentis
    Not of sound mind
  37. Voire Dire
    To speak the truth
  38. Res Adjudicata
    The matter has been decided
  39. Respondent Superior
    An employer is responsible for the torts of his employee.
  40. Res Ipas Loquitur
    The matter speaks for itself
  41. Contract
    A promise to perform for which consideration is given and for which the law recognizes a duty.
  42. What are the five things a contract have?
    Mutual assent (acceptance), consideration, two or more competent parties, object must be legal, consent to contract.
  43. The Doctor-Patient contract
    The doctor to use their skills to treat the patient and for the patient to pay the doctor.
  44. The 4 steps in a Doctor-Patient Relationship

    Step One:
    1) There is no obligation to treat anyone, but once treatment begins, the doctor assumes responsibility for the patients care until the doctor notifies the patient that he is withdrawing care, or the patient dismisses the doctor.
  45. The 4 steps in a Doctor-Patient Relationship

    Step Two:
    Obligation to treat a charity patient as any other, once they are accepted as a patient.
  46. The 4 steps in a Doctor-Patient Relationship

    Step Three:
    • Contract to treat and pay
    • a) Implied consent
    • b) Not valid with minor
  47. The 4 steps in a Doctor-Patient Relationship

    Step Four:
    Privileged Communication: Doctor cannot divulge patient information except when doctor is examined at request of defense for a trial.
  48. Landau Refelx "parachute"
    The neonate lies prone in the examiners hand, with the exteremities hanging. The infant should attempt to keep the spine and extremities straight or in extension.
  49. Moro Response (aka, Moro's embrace, Startle Reflex)
    In response to a loud sound or jarring, the infant will often cry, and extend/abduct the extremities, followed by slight flexion and adduction.
  50. Rooting Reflex
    An infant will turn the head towards and open its mouth in response a stroking at the corners of the mouth and lips.
  51. Stepping Reflex
    The neonate is held upright and the sole of the foot is allowed to touch a flat surface. Stimulated walking should result.
  52. Meconium
    The dark green intestinal discharge seen in the neonate
  53. Vernix caseosa
    A white, cheesy substance seen on the skin of the baby at birth.
  54. Lanugo
    The fine hair coveing the bodyof neonate or fetus
  55. Mongolian spots
    Bluish, ill-defined areas of the skin in the buttocks and sacral region. Often seen in dark-skinned infants, such as Black or Asians.
  56. Apgar Score
    A numerical score determined 1 and 5 minutes after birth. A score of 4 or less = need for immediate resuscitation; <7 = high risk for long term CNS dysfunction.
  57. Infant developmental milestone
    First teeth (6-7 months), solid food (4-6 months), umbilical cord stump falls off (10-21 days), walking (9-15 months).
  58. Anterior fontonelle
    closes in 6-18 months
  59. Posterior fontanelle
    closes in 2 months.
  60. Buldging fontanelles
    indicate inrcranial pressure
  61. Depressed fontanelles
  62. Caput succedaneum
    Edema and brusing of the neonate's scalp due to pressure/trauma during delivery. Usually no complications and resolves within a first few days after birth.
  63. Macewan's sign
    A resonant or "cracked pot" sound upon percussion in the parietal bones in older infants or children may indicate increased intracranial pressure. May be normal in neonates.
  64. Battered child syndrome
    lack of separation anxiety, fractures in various stages of healing, brusing in unusual areas (groin, armpits)
  65. Diphtheria
    An infectious condition characterized by pharyngitis, dysphagia, cervical lymphadenopathy and pseudomembrane formation in the tonsillar region.
  66. Fetal alcohol syndrome
    Signs include: delayed growth, microcephaly, retardation, pulled face with thin narrow lips and eyes, flat philtrum.
  67. Mumps
    "parotitis" A contagious disease presenting with: redness, swelling and tenderness of the parotid glands and sub-mandibular region, possible orchitis in post-pubertal males.
  68. Pertussis
    "whooping cough" Respiratory infection with coryza-like symptoms, a severe progressive cough and a characteristic high pitched inspiratory whoop.
  69. Premature Infant
    An infant born between 26th-37th weeks of gestation and with a weight of less than 2500 grams.
  70. Tetraology of Fallot
    A congenital syndrome consisting of Dextra-rotation of the aorta, Right ventricular hypertrophy, Interventricular septal defect, Pulmonary stenosis ("D.R.I.P.")
  71. Menarche
    The first menstrual period
  72. Dysmenorrhea
    Painful menses
  73. Menorrhagia
    Profuse or increased menstrual flow
  74. Metrorrhagia
    Irregular uterine (non-menstral) bleeding
  75. Amenorrhea
    The absence of or abnormal cesseation of menses. (1 degree before menarche/ 16 yoa, 2 degree- occurs after menses has been established).
  76. Cryptomenorrhea
    The symptoms of menses with no external discharge
  77. Dystocia
    Abnormal or painful labor
  78. Dyspareunia
    Painful or difficult intercourse
  79. Mittleschmerz
    Hypogastric pain associated with ovulation
  80. Gravida
    a pregnant woman. (primigravida or Gravida I-pregnant for the first time)
  81. Nulliparous
    a woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus (cf. primiparous, multiparous).
  82. Procidentia
    Prolapsed of the uterus with possible protrusion of the cervix through the vagina
  83. Endometriosis
    Aberrant endometrial tissue outside the uterus. S/S: back and abdominal pain, abnormal menses (dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, palpable tender masses).
  84. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
    "PID" or "salpingitis" An infection of the fallopian tubes (or upper genital tract). Commonly caused by N. gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis. S/S: adnexal and cervical tenderness, rebound tenderness, vaginal discharge.
  85. PID

    malodorous, yellow or green discharge (from Bartholin;s or Skene's ducts)
  86. PID

    White, curdy, sweet smelling
  87. PID

    Chylamydia trachomatis
    purulent, yellow
  88. PID

    Trichomonas vaginalis
    greenish-yellow, foamy, foul smelling
  89. Pap smear
    "papanicolaou" A staining procedure used to detect infectious (HPV) and abnormalities (cancer and pre-cancer) in the cervix and endometrium.
  90. What are the 5 classes in a pap smear?
    • Class 1 : normal
    • Class 2: atypical (possible inflammation or infection) LOW GRADE
    • Class 3: dysplasia or pre-cancerous HIGH GRADE
    • Class 4: high grade dysplasia or non- invasive carcinoma HIGH GRADE
    • Class 5: cancer, invasive CANCER
  91. Hydatidiform mole
    Proliferation and neoplasia of the placental chorionic villi in the absence of a fetus. S/S: Late stage uterine bleeding, abnormally high HCG levels, no fetal signs, 5-10% may become choriocarcinoma.
  92. Choriocarcinoma
    Malignancy of the trophoblastic cells (due to abnormal placental epithelium). (Trophoblastic cells surround the blastocyte and form villi).
  93. Proliferative phase
    • "follicular", "pre-ovulatory" "estrogen". During the early stage of the menstrual cycle, the hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) causing the anterior pituitary to release follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
    • FSH stimulates follicule maturation (Graafian follicle), and estrogen production by the follicle.
    • Estrogen builds up the endometrium for implantation, increases LH and increases vaginal secretions. Estrogen peaks prior to ovulation.
    • 24-36 hours after LH peaks, LH causes the follicle to rupture (forming the corpus luteum), and release the ovum. (The follicles that fail to ovulate degenerate and are called corpus atretica). The ovum enters the abdominal cavity into the ampulla of the Fallopian tubes.
    • The ovary signals the pituitary to stop FSH production.
  94. Secretory Phase
    • "progesterone" The corpus luteum secretes progesterone. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum (becomes the corpus albicans) stops its secretion of progesterone and menstruation begins again.
    • Progesterone inhibits estrogen and maintains the endometrial lining (preparing the uterus to receive the fertilized ovum and its development).
    • If fertilization occurs, fetal tissue produces progesterone and HCG. The placenta also produces progesterone. Endometrial implantaion occurs about 9 days after ovulation)
  95. Human Chorionic Gonatotropin hormone
    Also, HCG. Produced by the syncitiotrophoblasts of the placenta. Promotes the growth and secretory function of the corpus luteum.
  96. Prolactin
    Luteotropic Hormone (LTH). From anterior pituitary, prolactin stimulates and sustains post-partum lactation, and inhibits estrogen production.
  97. Oxytocin
    stored in the posterior pituitary, uterine contraction, milk production and ejection.
  98. Chorion
    The outermost membrane of the fertilized ovum (consisting of trophoblasts and mesoderm) and eventually giving rise to the placenta.
  99. Chadwick's
    soft and cyanotic (bluish-purple) cervix
  100. Goodell's
    softening of the cervix
  101. Hegar's sign
    softening at the isthmus of the uterus in early pregnancy
  102. Piskacek's sign
    asymmetrical enlargement of the uterus
  103. Braxton Hicks
    Light, perceptible, irregular uterine contractions occurring as early as in the first trimester of pregnancy.
  104. Colostrum
    a thin milky discharge from the nipple that occurs pre or post-partum
  105. Quickening
    The perception of fetal movement seen around the 16th-18th week of pregnancy.
  106. Station
    Identifies the fetal position (in cm.s) relative to the ischial spine.
  107. Lightening
    2-3 weeks before labor the dropping of the uterus into the pelvic cavity results in a sense of decreased abdominal distension.
  108. Effacement
    shortening of the cervical canal to a flat circular opening
  109. Bloody show
    "show" A blood stained mucus plug found at the os (opening) of the cervical canal that is ejected prior to labor.
  110. Naegele's rule
    Used to estimate the day of labor: the first day LMP minus 3 months plus 7 days
  111. Chloasma
    "melasma gravidarum" A brown hyper-pigmentation