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3 categories of infectious agents
biological, chemical, nuclear radiation
what are biological agents
bacteria viruses fungi adn toxins cultivated to cause harm
biologics are easier over weapons because?
- easy to obtain
- less area for production
- do not need special equipment
- person responsible can easily escape
why is it easy to create public panic
bc biologics are colorless and odorless
4 potential biologic agents
- anthrax ( bacterial)
- botulism (toxin)
- smallpox (virus)
- plague (bacteria)
an acute infectious disease caused by a spore forming gram positive bacterium
affects domestic animals horses pigs, and cows
anthrax (bacillum anthracis)
3 forms of human anthrax infection
- pulmonary (inhalation)
- cutaneous (open wound)
- gastrointestinal (contaminated food)
how is anthrax usually acquired
from a break in the skin that comes in direct contact of infected animals
Whats the problem with anthrax?
Spores remain viable in soil for years.
what happens if treatment is not immediate and aggressive with anthrax
the person will die because of necrosis, hemmorage, edema, menangitis.
How to diagnose anthrax?
If x-ray shows mediastinal widening indicating hemmoraging, what could be the cause?
For cutanious anthrax what test needs to be done to Dx?
Blood culture, elisa test and PCR.
Symptoms of Anthrax exposure for first phase?
Sore throat, low fever, caugh, fatigue, and muscle ache
Incubation period for pulmonary anthrax?
1 - 5 days but can last up to 60 days.
How many days of improvement may follow the first phase of anthrax symptoms?
Symptoms of Anthrax exposure for second phase?
Dyspnea, strider, cionosis, respratory failure, toxemia, and acute hemorage mediastineitis.
How long does shock and death accure with anthrax?
24-36 hours of later symptoms.
Incubation period for cutanious anthrax?
What are symptoms of cutanious anthrax?
Localize itching, dark scabs, and edima.
Antrax vaccination is recomended for?
- lab workers
- animal handlers
Two antibiotics for anthrax
Nursing Care for anthrax?
- Remove contaminated clothing
- Have client shower with soap and water
- Give profolactic treatment / antibiotics for 8 weeks
A highly contagous viral disease in which humans are the only resevoir for the virus?
When was the last known case of small pox?
Two types of small pox?
Variola (major and minor)
How does infection occur with smallpox?
Small amount of virus is inhaled and travels to the lungs to the regional lymph nodes where it replicates.
How is smallpox spread?
- Person to person
Can animals or plants get smallpox?
Symptoms of smallpox?
- Pustular rash
Medical treatment for smallpox?
No effective treatment.
nursing care for smallpox
standard and airborne precaution
disease caused by bacteria yersinia pestis
disease of animals that can be directly transmitted to hmans by animals
zoonatic disease (plague)
2 types of plagues
bubonic and pneumonic
humans acquire _____ plague from a bite of a flea feedin on an infected rat
If bubonic plague is not treated what could happen?
- Bacterium enters blood stream
- invades lungs
- and causes pnumonic plague
How is Pnumonic plague spread?
- Person to person
- by droplet
How long til people with pnumonic plague die?
How is bobonic plague diagnosed?
- blood culture
- lymph gland sample
How is pnumonic plague diagnosed?
- blood culture
- sputum sample
Symptoms of bubonic plague?
- Swollen lymph gland in the groin, armpit or neck
- fever and chills
First sign of pnumonic plague?
- Chest pains
- Blood or watery sputum
If antibiotic treatment is not started within 24 hours of plagues what could happen?
- Respratory failure
- Rapid Death
Treatment for Bubonic Plague?