Protein Synthesis

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Protein Synthesis
2011-10-12 12:53:43
Protein Synthesis

Protein Synthesis
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  1. DNA has what nucleotides and monosaccharide?
    • Nucleotides: adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine.
    • Monosacccharide: deoxyribose.
  2. RNA has what nucleotides and monosaccharide?
    • Nucleotides: adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine.
    • Monosaccharide: ribose.
  3. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    carries a "message" in the form of a "mold" or "pattern" from a section of DNA to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. One of the two strands of DNA molecule coding for protein structure.

    • EX: mRNA
    • ____________________
    • | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
    • a u c g c c c g g u a u a a
  4. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
    acts as an "escort" to bring in specific amino acids for assembly into a specific protein. each amino acid has specific tRNA as escorts.

    "escort molecule"

    takes amino acid to location where they belong
  5. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    along with proteins, they make up ribosomes in the cytoplasm and assists in protein synthesis.
  6. Transcription
    "1st stage" involves the transfer of information from a DNA's base sequence to the complementary base sequence of a mRNA molecule.

    • EX:
    • |-t a-|
    • |-a u-|
    • |-c g-|
    • |-g c-|
    • |-c g-|
    • |-g c-|
    • |-g c-|
    • |-g c-|
    • |-c g-|
    • |-a u-|
    • |-t a-|
    • |-a u-|
    • |-t a-|
    • |-t a-|
  7. RNA polymerase
    makes a RNA polymer, copies template.
  8. Translation
    takes message in one language and restates it in another language.

    language of nucleic acids (base sequence) is translated into the language of proteins (amino acid sequence).

    2nd stage
  9. Helicase
    enzyme that unwinds DNA at a section where gene is located.
  10. Ribosome
    site where protein synthesis takes place.
  11. Codon
    linear unit of 3 nucleotides
  12. occurs between the amino acids
    Dehydration synthesis
  13. anticodons
    3 based sequence complementary to the mRNA codon
  14. point mutation
    an error in a gene, such as a misplaced nucleotide in a codon.
  15. lethal mutation
    mutation that causes death to an organism
  16. chromosomal mutation
    entire choromosome involved in an error
  17. genes
    sections of chromosomes which produce the proteins, acting either alone or in groups, control the development of traits.
  18. RNA base pair rule
    • adenine of DNA pairs with uracil of RNA
    • cytosine of DNA pairs with guanine of RNA
    • guanine of DNA pairs with cytosine of RNA
    • thymine of DNA pairs with adenine of RNA
  19. nucleotide
    has nitorgen base, monosaccharide and phosphate
  20. DNA base pairing rule
    • adenine with thymine
    • thymine with adenine
    • guanine with cytosine
    • cytosine with guanine