A and P exam 2

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A and P exam 2
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2011-10-12 12:41:41
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A and P exam 2
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  1. P=
    F/A
  2. C1
    atlas, "holds the weight of the world"
  3. C2
    axis, pivots
  4. Respiration
    exchange of gas between an organism and its environment
  5. Inspiration
    bringing oxygen to the body's cells by breathing
  6. Boyle's law
    volume up, pressure down, volume down, pressure up
  7. PV=
    K
  8. more space
    less frequnency
  9. less space
    more frequency
  10. cervical vertebrae
    7
  11. thoracic vertebrae
    12
  12. Lumbar vertebrae
    5
  13. Sacral vertebrae
    4
  14. Fused (Coccyx) vertebrae
    5
  15. Only ribs 1, 10, 11, and 12 have a ___________ connection
    1:1
  16. ribs attach to
    costal facets
  17. Pelvic girdle (components)
    ilium, sacrum, pubic bone, and ischium (lower extremetites)
  18. Pectoral girdle (components)
    scapua, clavical bones (upper)
  19. Sacrum articulates with
    L5
  20. How many true ribs?
    7
  21. How many false ribs?
    3
  22. How many floating ribs?
    2
  23. What does the rib cage protect?
    heart and lungs
  24. Purpose of the rib cage
    elevate during inspiration
  25. Rid (components)
    head, neck, angle, shaft
  26. Trachea has how many C-shaped rings?
    16-20
  27. Spinal cord passes through
    vertebral foramen
  28. __________ pressure causes air to enter a chamber that has expanded until the pressure is equalized
    negative
  29. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the ________ dimension of the thorax
    vertical
  30. Contraction of the accessory muscles of inspiration increases the __________ dimension of the thorax.
    transverse
  31. Passive expiration involves the forces of _______________
    torque elasticity and gravity
  32. the volume of air that we breathe in during a respiratory cycle
    tidal volume
  33. the volume of that ca inhaled after a tidal inspiration
    inspiratory reserve
  34. the volume that can be exhaled after a tidal inspiration
    expiratory reserve
  35. the volume remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation
    residual volume
  36. The combination of inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, and tidal volume.
    vital capacity
  37. The volume of air remaining in the body after a passive exhalation
    functional residual capacity
  38. the sum of all the volumes
    total lung capacity
  39. ________ is the volume of air that cannot undergo gas exchange
    dead space air
  40. _____ pressure is the air pressure measured within the oral cavity
    intraoral
  41. _______ pressure is the air pressure measured below the vocal folds
    subglottic
  42. ________ pressure is the pressure within the alveolus
    alveolar, pulmonic
  43. ____________ pressure is the pressure between the visceral and parietal pleural membranes
    intrapleural or pleural
  44. When the diaphragm contracts, pressure within the alveolus _____
    decreases
  45. When air pressure within the lungs is lower than that of the atmosphere, air will ___ the lungs
    enter
  46. When the body is placed in a reclining position, the resting lung volume_____
    decreases
  47. Use of the muscles of inspiration to impede the outward flow of air during speech is termed _____
    Checking action
  48. decrease in alveolar pressure=
    expansion of the thorax
  49. thorax expands ____ decreases
    • pleurae
    • thorax/diaphragm pull away from lungs
    • imbalance of pressure in atmosphere/lungs
  50. expiration
    reduction in thorax size, positive pressure
  51. Diaphragm is between the ______ and the ______
    thorax and abdomen
  52. Lungs expand when ___________ contracts
    diaphragm
  53. Accessory muscles provide
    added expansion of the rib cage for further inspiration
  54. The vertebral column is ______ and ____
    strong and flexible
  55. What does the cartilaginous attachment do?
    attach to the ribs to the sternum as it permits the ribs to rotate slightly during respiration, allowing the rib cage to elevate.
  56. The thoracic volume is _________ than that of the lungs at rest
    greater
  57. Alveoli
    the site of gas exchange
  58. the 2nd most important muscle of the body
    diaphragm
  59. 1st most important muscle
    heart
  60. serratus posterior superior muscle
    when contracted, elevate rib cage
  61. exchange of oxygen between organism and environment
    respiration
  62. inspriation, rib cage ________
    elevates
  63. Sacral
    5
  64. air sacs
    alveoli
  65. Spinal nerves exit spinal cord via
    foramen magnum
  66. The ________ hiatus is the opening of the diaphragm that permits connection of the pharyngeal region with the stomach.
    esophageal
  67. The term for a punctured lung
    pneumothorax
  68. Pectoral girdle
    scapula and calvicle
  69. The __________ process is the inferior-most aspect of the sternum
    ensiform/xiphoid
  70. The odontoid process is present only on the
    second thoracic vertebra
  71. Bony thorax
    veretbral column, ribs, pectoral girdle, sternum, pelvic girdle
  72. transverse foramina
    cervical vertebrae
  73. Thoracic vertebrae is important for?
    breathing
  74. Vertebral notches produce intraverterbral foramina what goes thru there?
    spinal cord
  75. Lumbar is ________ to the diaphragm
    posterior
  76. Sacrum articulates with which vertrebra?
    L5
  77. Purpose of rib cage
    elevate during inspiration
  78. Left lung
    2 lobes
  79. Right lung
    3 lobes
  80. Lungs have ___________ muscles
    no

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