Integumentary system

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nora_phllps
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Integumentary system
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2011-10-12 12:47:43
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Integumentary system
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Integumentary system
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  1. Mucous Membranes
    line body passageways that open to the outside of the body. secrete mucus.
  2. Globet cells
    multicellular mucus glands in the mucous membranes, secrete the protective lubricating mucus.
  3. Mucin
    protective, lubricating mucus, which consists of water, salts, and a sticky protein. Provides lubrication and helps trap invading microorganisms.
  4. Serous membranes
    line some of the walls of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and cover organs that lie within these cavities. secrete serous fluid.
  5. Serous fluid
    acts as a protective lubricant
  6. Synovial membranes
    line the cavities of movable joints. secrete synovial fluid
  7. Synovial fluid
    helps reduce friction at the movable joints.
  8. Cutaneous membranes
    (skin) largest membrane. consists of two layers. epidermis and dermis. considered an organ.
  9. Functions of the skin
    protection, body temperature regulation, cutaneous sensation.
  10. metabolic functions of the skin
    vitamin d synthesis. excretion.
  11. uremic frost
    tiny flakes of urea on the skin, seen on people with kidney disease.
  12. epidermis
    consists of four or five sublayers depending on its location. It is "avascular (without blood supply) and has no nerve supply.
  13. layers of epidermis
    • 1. stratum corneum
    • 2. stratum lucidum-only present on thick skin, palms of hands, soles of feet.
    • 3. stratum granulosum
    • 4. stratum spinosum
    • 5. stratum basale
  14. Melanin
    pigment, screens out ultraviolet rays from the sun that cn damage tissues.
  15. keratinocytes
    produce keratin, a protein that hardens and waterproofs the skin.
  16. melanocytes
    produce melanin
  17. merkel cells
    tactile cells, occur deep in the epidermis. serve as receptors for the sense of touch.
  18. dermis
    second layer of the skin. provides strength, extensibility (the ability to strecth) and elasticity (the ability to return to its original form). consists of two layers.
  19. papillary layer
    thin outer layer of dermis.
  20. reticular layer
    thick layer of dermis, makes up 80% of the dermis.
  21. dermal papillae
    fingerlike projections that protude into the dermis.
  22. epidermal ridges
    fingerprints
  23. accessory organs
    hair, nails, sudoriferous glands, sebaceous glands
  24. Hair functions
    sensory protection, filtration, and some protection
  25. hair shaft
    portion of the hair that is visible on the surface
  26. hair root
    portion of the hair that penetrates the skin
  27. hair follicle
    saclike invagination of the epidermis from which hair root developes.
  28. hair bulb
    base of the hair follicle
  29. hair matrix
    bottom of hair follicle located within the bulb.
  30. arrector pili
    muscle that is attached to the hair follicle. when it contracts produces goose bumps.
  31. cellulite
    subcutaneous fat of the body
  32. hypodermis
    subcutaneous layer or superficial layer. consists mostly of adipose tissue. storage site of most body fat.provides thermal insulation, absorbs shocks from impacts.
  33. sebaceous glands
    secrete sebum, not found on the palms of the hands or soles of the feet.
  34. sebum
    oily substance, inhibits bacterial growth and helps prevent drying of the hair and skin.
  35. nails
    keratinzed epithelial cells.
  36. lunula
    area of new growth, semilunar lighter region of the nail.
  37. sweat glands (sudoriferous)
    secrete sweat by exocytosis. four kinds.
  38. eccrine glands
    occur under most skin surface and secrete a watery solution through pores which serves to cool the skin as it evaporates.
  39. apocrine glands
    occur under skin surfaces of the armpits and pubic regions. begin at puberty. secrete solution in response to stress or sexual excitement. 2 kinds.
  40. ceruminous glands
    secrete cerumen (earwax) into external ear canal. helps to impede the entrance of foreign bodies.
  41. mammory glands
    produce milk
  42. skin cancers
    • basal cell carcinoma
    • squamous cell carcinoma
    • malignant melanoma
  43. basal cell carcinoma
    appears in over 30% of fair-skinned people. most common. least malginant.

    possible locations: ears, forehead, nose
  44. squamous cell carcinoma
    typicaly in the keratinized epidermal cells. it may metastasize. rarely fatal.

    possible locations: lips, mouth, face, ears.
  45. malignant melanoma
    affects the pigment producing melanocytes. usually starts as small dark growth, gradually becomes larger and irregular in shape.
  46. minor (first degree) burn
    • surface area affected-less than 10%
    • depth of tissue damage-epidermis, not destroyed
    • major effects-mild swelling, reddening, pain. skin heals witout scarring.
  47. serious (secnd degree) burn
    • suface area-less than 15%, less than 10% for child
    • depth-epidermis and part of dermis destroyed.
    • major effects-red or mottled. blisters, swelling, wet surface due to plama loss. destroys sensitive nerve endings.
  48. severe (third degree) burn
    • surface-more than 20%
    • depth-all layers of skin destroyed
    • major effects-white charred appearance, severe loss of body fluids.
  49. albinism
    (cogenital leukoderma)-absence of pigment in the skin, hair and irises, may be partial or complete. people have a genetic lack of melanin from both parents.

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