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  1. Chemistry
    • the study of matter, its composition, properties, and transformations.
    • Anything that has mass and takes up volume
  2. Three States of Matter
    • Solid
    • Liquid
    • Gas
  3. Solid
    • Has a definite volume
    • maintains its shape regardless of its container
    • has particles that lie close together in a regular 3-D array
  4. Liquid
    • Has definite volume
    • takes the shape of its container
    • has particles that are close together but can move past one another
  5. Gas
    • Has no definite shape or volume
    • Expands to fill the volume and assumes the shape of whatever container it is put in
    • Has particles that are very far apart and move around randomly
  6. Physical properties and Physical Change
    Properties: can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the material;

    Change: alters the material without changing the composition.

    ex. melting point, boiling point, solubility, color, odor
  7. Chemical Properties and Chemical Change
    Properties: determine how a substance can be converted into another substance

    Change: the chemical reaction that converts one substance into another

    ex. piece of burning paper, metabolizing an apple for energy, oxygen and hydrogen combining to form water
  8. Classification of Matter
    Pure Substance
    • composed of a single component
    • has constant composition regardless of sample size and origin of sample
    • Cannot be broken down to other pure substance by a physical change

    ex. table sugar (C12H22O11), water (H2O)
  9. Classification of Matter
    • is composed of more than one component
    • can have varying composition (any combination of solid, liquid, and gas) depending on the sample
    • can be separated into its components by a physical change
    • ex. sugar dissolved in water=mixture
  10. Classification of Matter
    A pure substance that cannot be broken down by a chemical change

    ex. aluminum
  11. Classification of Matter
    A pure substance formed by chemically joining two or more elements
  12. Measurement
    Lenth, Mass, Volume
    • Length = meter
    • Mass = grams
    • Volume = liter
  13. Significant Figures
    • Exact numbers - have no uncertainty associated with them
    • Inexact number - result from a measurement or observation and contains some uncertainty
  14. Significant Figures Rules
    • 1) All non zero numbers are significant
    • 2) A zero counts as a sig/fig when it occurs:
    • a) between two nonzero digits
    • 29.05 (4 sigfig) 1.0087 (5 sigfig)
    • b) at the end of a number with a decimal place
    • 3.7500 (5 sigfig) 620. (3 sigfig) 620 (2 sigfig)
    • 3) A zero does not count:
    • a) at the beginning of a number
    • 0.00245 (3) 0.008 (1 sigfig)
    • b) at the end of a number that does not have a decimal
    • 2570 (3) 1245500 (5 sigfig)
  15. Significant figures
    Rules for multiplication and division
    The answer has to have the same number of sig figs as the original number with the fewest significan figures

    • 351. 2 miles = 63.854545 miles
    • 5.5 hours hour

    63 miles per hour
  16. Significant figures
    Rules for addition and subtraction
    The answer has the same number of decimal places as the original number with the fewest decimal places.

    • 10.11 2 decimal places
    • - 3.6 1 decimal place
    • 6.51 answer must have 1 decimal place = 6.5
  17. Scientific Notation
    • When the exponent x is positive. move the decimal point to the right.
    • 2.800 X 102= 280.0
    • When the exponent is negative, move the decimal to the left.
    • 2.80 X 10-2= 0.0280
  18. Using Conversion Factor Label Method Steps
    • 1) Identify the original quantity and the desired quantity including units.
    • 2) Write out hte conversion factor needed to solve the problem.
    • 3)Set up and Solve the problem

    Ex. How many grams of Asprin are in a 325mg tablet?

    • 1) Original quantity - 325 mg Desired quantity - ? g
    • 2)1g = 1000mg
    • 3) 325mg X 1g = 0.325g
    • 1000mg
  19. Temperature
    • The measure of the kinectic energy of a collection of object.
    • Kelvin, Farenheit, Celsuis
  20. Equation for converting Celsius to Farenheit
    Farenheit to Celsius
    • C --> F
    • F = 1.8(C) + 32

    • F --> C
    • C = F - 32
    • 1.8
  21. Equation for converting Celsius to Kelvin and Kelvin to Celsius
    • C ---> K
    • K = C + 273

    • K ---> C
    • C = K - 273
  22. Density
    • Density = Mass
    • Volume

    a characteristic physical property that relates the mass of a substance to its volume and has a specific value
  23. Specific Gravity
    A quantity that compares the density of a substance with the density of water at the same temperature

    • Specific gravity = density of a substance (g/ml)
    • density of water (g/ml)
    • contains no units
  24. Accuracy vs Precision
    Accuracy - the degree of agreement between the true value and the measured value

    Precision - a measure of the aggreemnent of a replicate measurements
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Chapter 1
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