Fluid & electrolytes (part 120-150)

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Ted
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10844
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Fluid & electrolytes (part 120-150)
Updated:
2010-03-16 18:56:13
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Phosphate Magnnesium hypophosphatemia hyperphosphatemia hypermagnesemia hypomagnesemia hypervolemia hypervolemia
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Fluid & electrolytes for nursing II
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  1. Normal range for phosphate.
    2.5-4.5 mg/dl is the normal range for what electrolyte?
  2. Causes of hyperphosphatemia. (4)
    • 1) Acute or chronic renal failure
    • 2) Chemotherapy
    • 3) Excessive ingestion of milk or phosphate containing laxatives
    • 4) Large intakes of vitamin D

    These are all causes of what electrolyte imbalance?
  3. Name some clinical manifestations of hyperphosphatemia. (3)
    • 1) Hypocalcemia
    • 2) Muscle problems (tetany)
    • 3) Deposition of calcium-phosphate precipitates in the skin, soft tissue, cornea, viscera, and blood vessels

    These are all clinical manifestations of what electrolyte imbalance.
  4. Hyperphosphatemia can be managed how? (4)
    • 1) Identify and treat the underlying cause
    • 2) Restricting foods and fluids containing phosphorus
    • 3) Adequate hydration and correction of hypocalcemic condition
    • 4) Give Sevelamar (Renagel)

    These would all be treatments for what electrolyte imbalance?
  5. List some causes of hypophosphatemia. (4)
    • 1) Malnourishment/malabsorption
    • 2) Alcohol withdrawal
    • 3) Use of phosphate-binding antacids
    • 4) During parenteral nutrition with inadequate replacement

    These things are all causes of what electrolyte imbalance?
  6. Name some clinical manifestations of hypophosphatemia. (5)
    • 1) CNS depression
    • 2) Confusion
    • 3) muscle weakness and pain
    • 4) Arrhythmias
    • 5) Cardiomayopathy

    These are all clinical manifestations of what electrolyte imbalance?
  7. Name some managements for hypophosphatemia. (3)
    • 1) Oral supplementation of phosphate
    • 2) Ingestion of food high in phosphorus
    • 3) May require IV administration of sodium or potassium phosphate

    These are all managements for what elecrtolyte imbalance.
  8. What is the normal range for magnesium in the blood.
    1.5-2.5 is the normal range for what electrolyte?
  9. _____-_____% of magnesium is contained in the bone.
    50-60% of magnesium is contained in the ____.
  10. Magnesium is a coenzyme in the metabolism of ______ and ________.
    What electrolyte is a coenzyme in the metabolism of protein and carbohydrates.
  11. Factors that regulate _______ balance appear to influence magnesium balance.
    Factors that regulate calcium balance appear to influence _______ balance.
  12. What is magnesium important for?
    ________ is important for normal cardiac function.
  13. Which electrolyte acts directly on the myoneutral junction?
    Magnesium acts directly on the ______ junction
  14. Name a cause of hypermagnesemia.
    Increased intake or ingestion of products containing magnesium when renal insufficiency or failure is present can cause what electrolyte imbalance?
  15. Name some clinical manifestations of hypermagnesemia. (6)
    • 1) Lethergy
    • 2) Drowsiness
    • 3) N/V
    • 4) Reflexes impaired
    • 5) Somnolence (prolanged drowsiness or sleepyness)
    • 6) Respiratory and cardiac arrest can occur

    These are all clinical manifestations of what electrolyte imbalance?
  16. How would you manage hypermagnesemia? (3)
    • 1) Prevention
    • 2) IV CaCl or calcium gluconate
    • 3) Fluids

    These are all done in teh management of what electrolyte imbalance?
  17. Name some causes of hypomagnesemia. (6)
    • 1) Prolonged fasting or starvation
    • 2) Chronic alcoholism
    • 3) Fluid loss
    • 4) Prolonged parenteral nutrition without supplementation
    • 5) Diuretics
    • 6) Osmotic diuetics from high glucose levels

    These are all causes of what electrotlyte imbalance.
  18. Name some clinical manifestations of hypomegnesemia. (5)
    • 1) Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes
    • 2) Tremors
    • 3) Seizures
    • 4) Cardiac arrhythmias
    • 5) Confusion

    These are all clinical manifestations of what electrolyte imbalance?
  19. What would be some nursing managements for hypomagnesemia. (3)
    • 1) Oral supplements of magnesium
    • 2) Increase dietary intake of magnesium
    • 3) If severe, parenteral IV or IM magnesium

    These would all be nursing managements for what electrolyte imbalance?
  20. Normal levels for potassium.
    3.5-5.3 mEq/L is the normal level for what electrolyte.
  21. What is the normal level for sodium?
    135-145 mEq/L is the normal level for what electrolyte.
  22. What is the normal level for calcium?
    4.5-5.5 mEq/L is the normal level for what electrolyte?
  23. Dehydration does what to body temperature?
    ______ causes the body temp to increase.
  24. Fluids make up what % of body weight in
    A) Adults
    B) Older adults
    C) Infants
    • A) 60%
    • B) 45-55%
    • C) 70-80%

    These are the percentages that fluids make up body weights in what age groups?
  25. Hypervolemia would be indicated in a patient with serum osmolarity in what range?
    _________ would be indicated in a patient with serum osmolarity < 280
  26. Hypovolemia would be indicated in a patient with serum osmolaity in what range?
    _______ would be indicated in a patient with serum osmolaity> 300.
  27. Name some clinical manifestations of hypovolemia. (15)
    • 1) Decreased urine output <300ml/hr
    • 2) Weak , rapid pulse
    • 3) Acute weight loss
    • 4) Elevated temp
    • 5) Increased thirst
    • 6) Anorexia
    • 7) Muscle weakness, cramps
    • 8) Poor skin turgor
    • 9) Elevated BUN, and Hemocrit
    • 10) Lethargy
    • 11) Postural hypotension
    • 12) Cool, clammy skin
    • 13) Flattened neck veins
    • 14) Mental status changes
    • 15) Serum osmolality > 300

    These would all be clinical manifestations of what?
  28. Name some nursing interventions for hypovolemia.
    • 1) Monitor specific assessment parameters related ot the mangement
    • 2) Assist whith rehydration
    • 3) Provide comfort measures

    These would be some nursing interventions in what fluid imbalance?
  29. Name some clinical manifestations of hypervolemia. (13)
    • 1) Irritability, apathy or confusion
    • 2) Anorexia, nausea
    • 3) Sudden weight increase
    • 4) Edema
    • 5) Polyuria
    • 6) Bounding, rapid pulse
    • 7) Headache
    • 8) Elevated BP
    • 9) Decreased BUN, and Hct
    • 10) Decreased urine specific gravity
    • 11) Distended neck veins
    • 12) Serum osmolarity of < 280
    • 13) Pulmonary edema

    These are all clinical manifestations of what?
  30. Name some nursing interventions for hypervolemia.
    • 1) Restrict fluid intake to 1000-1500 ml/24 hours
    • 2) Na restricted diet
    • 3) Loop diuretics
    • 4) Lanoxin, Beta Blockers, ACE inhibitors
    • 5) Increase protein intake to increase capillary onconic pressure

    These would be nursing interventions for what fluid imbalance?

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