BIO Quiz 2

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  1. What are characteristics of a k-selected species?
    • population growth is typically slow
    • mothers take care of their young
    • "tolerators"
    • humans would be classified as k selected species
    • Don't usually reach their resource limit
  2. What are characteristics of an r-selected species?
    • Use as many resources as they can
    • reproduce at huge rates but run out of resources (food)
    • population crash
    • Rodents and insects
  3. What are the three species interactions in a farm system?
    • 1. predator
    • 2. mutualism
    • 3. competition
  4. Give an example of mutualism
    Bees + <------> + flowers
  5. Give an example of predator
    prey - ----(energy flow)------> predator +

    • + increase in population
    • - decrease in population
  6. Give an example of competition
    • can happen within same species or different species
    • species A - ------------> species B -
  7. What is the different between interspecific and intraspecific?
    • interspecific is different species
    • intraspecific is same species
  8. What is fallow?
    A farm left without cultivation for a period of time
  9. What is succession?
    • A process where natural plant community
    • gradually establish
  10. What is the cycle of slash and burn?
    • 1. Crop cultivation
    • 2. Fallow
    • 3. Succession
    • 4. Burn
    • 5. Crop Cultivation
  11. What are three forms of early agriculture intensification?
    • Slash and burn
    • Terrace Agriculture: expansion of suitable agriculture habitats
    • Fish-silkworm-crop Agriculture: more complicated and intensive food chains
  12. Agriculture Revolution and intensification is an interplay of what?
    biology and culture
  13. What are three forms of chemical energy?
    • 1. Fat
    • 2. Carbohydrates
    • 3. Protein
  14. What is the difference between ADP and ATP?
    • ADP=uncharged
    • ATP=charged

    ADP + Energy = ATP
  15. How is the stored energy used in plants and animals?
    Cellular Respiration
  16. In photosynthesis, what form is chemical energy stored in ?
    Carbohydrate: Glucose (sugar)
  17. 6CO2 + 12H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O Refers to what?
    Photosynthesis: Carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight are used to produce glucose, oxygen, and water.
  18. What is the main photosynthetic pigment?
    Chlorophyll A
  19. What do light dependent reactions do?
    They produce ATP and NADPH, which are needed to produce glucose in the light-independent reactions
  20. What is the product of the Calvin Cycle?
    • The products of the light reactions (ATP and NADPH) are used to reduce CO2 to carbohydrate in the Calvin cycle.
    • 6 CO2 molecules run through the cycle make 1 molecule of glucose.
  21. What is a C4 plant?
    This mechanism requires extra ATP but under hot, dry conditions C4 plants are two to three times more efficient than C3 plants.
  22. What is the energy density of fat, proteins, and carbohydrates?
    • Fat: 9
    • Alcohol: 7
    • Proteins: 4
    • Carbs: 4
    • Fiber: 2
  23. What are the three stages of cellular respiration?
    • glycolysis
    • the citric acid cycle
    • electron transport
  24. Energy flow through tropic levels:
    • Energy --->
    • producer --->
    • primary consumer --->
    • secondary consumer --->
    • tertiary consumer
  25. What is nitrogen fixation?
    one process by which molecular nitrogen is reduced to form ammonia. This complex process is carried out by nitrogen-fixing bacteria present in the soil
  26. What's another way nitrogen can be reduced to form ammonia?
    Nitrification: nitrates and nitrites, released by decaying organic matter are converted to ammonium ions by nitrifying bacteria present in the soil.
  27. What are the three processes responsible for nitrogen fixation in the biosphere?
    • atmospheric (lightning breaks nitrogen molecules making them combine with oxygen)
    • biological (certain microbs, usually symbiotic)
    • industrial (factories make it)
  28. What are the bacteria and archaea most commonly found in symbiotic nitrogen fixation?
    • termites
    • legumes (beans, peas, clover)
    • azolla
    • bayberry
    • dryas
  29. What is leaching in the nitrogen fixation process?
    Leaching is the process by which nitrogen that is contained in the soils is removed via water. Nitrates, nitrites and ammonia are all water soluble meaning that they easily dissolve into water.
  30. What are some negative effects of increased nitrogen?
    • dead fish
    • algal bloom
  31. where is most of your food nutrition absorbed?
    in the small and large intestine
  32. What is essential to breaking down food before it reaches your intestines?
    • salivary glands
    • liver
    • pancreas
  33. what are proteins?
    polymers of amino acids
  34. What are lipids?
    • fats (triglycerides)
    • waxes
    • sterols
  35. Monosaccharide= ?
    • glucose or fructose
    • sucrose
    • cellulose and starch
  36. How many amino acids exist, and how many of those are essential to the human body?
    • 22 exist
    • 8 essential
  37. What are the basic nutrient groups?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Protein
    • Vitamins
    • Mineral
    • Water
  38. If you're hypoglycemic your body will stimulate glucagon and
    convert glycogen to glucose through glycogenolysis
  39. If you're hyperglycemic your body will stimulate insulin and
    Convert glucose to glycogen through glycogenesis
  40. What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
    • Type 1 Results from body's failure to produce insulin
    • Type 2 Results from body's failure to use insulin properly
  41. What is NIDDM referring to?
    • non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
    • (Type 2 diabetes)
  42. What are examples of low foods on the GI?
    • Most fruits,
    • vegetables,
    • legumes,
    • whole grains,
    • nuts, etc.
  43. What is the gut microbiome theory?
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BIO Quiz 2

BIO Quiz 2
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