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What are characteristics of a k-selected species?
- population growth is typically slow
- mothers take care of their young
- humans would be classified as k selected species
- Don't usually reach their resource limit
What are characteristics of an r-selected species?
- Use as many resources as they can
- reproduce at huge rates but run out of resources (food)
- population crash
- Rodents and insects
What are the three species interactions in a farm system?
- 1. predator
- 2. mutualism
- 3. competition
Give an example of mutualism
Bees + <------> + flowers
Give an example of predator
----(energy flow)------> predator +
- + increase in population
- - decrease in population
Give an example of competition
- can happen within same species or different species
- species A - ------------> species B -
What is the different between interspecific and intraspecific?
- interspecific is different species
- intraspecific is same species
What is fallow?
A farm left without cultivation for a period of time
What is succession?
- A process where natural plant community
- gradually establish
What is the cycle of slash and burn?
- 1. Crop cultivation
- 2. Fallow
- 3. Succession
- 4. Burn
- 5. Crop Cultivation
What are three forms of early agriculture intensification?
- Slash and burn
- Terrace Agriculture: expansion of suitable agriculture habitats
- Fish-silkworm-crop Agriculture: more complicated and intensive food chains
Agriculture Revolution and intensification is an interplay of what?
biology and culture
What are three forms of chemical energy?
- 1. Fat
- 2. Carbohydrates
- 3. Protein
What is the difference between ADP and ATP?
How is the stored energy used in plants and animals?
In photosynthesis, what form is chemical energy stored in ?
Carbohydrate: Glucose (sugar)
6CO2 + 12H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O Refers to what?
Photosynthesis: Carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight are used to produce glucose, oxygen, and water.
What is the main photosynthetic pigment?
What do light dependent reactions do?
They produce ATP and NADPH, which are needed to produce glucose in the light-independent reactions
What is the product of the Calvin Cycle?
- The products of the light reactions (ATP and NADPH) are used to reduce CO2 to carbohydrate in the Calvin cycle.
- 6 CO2 molecules run through the cycle make 1 molecule of glucose.
What is a C4 plant?
This mechanism requires extra ATP but under hot, dry conditions C4 plants are two to three times more efficient than C3 plants.
What is the energy density of fat, proteins, and carbohydrates?
- Fat: 9
- Alcohol: 7
- Proteins: 4
- Carbs: 4
- Fiber: 2
What are the three stages of cellular respiration?
- the citric acid cycle
- electron transport
Energy flow through tropic levels:
- Energy --->
- producer --->
- primary consumer --->
- secondary consumer --->
- tertiary consumer
What is nitrogen fixation?
one process by which molecular nitrogen is reduced to form ammonia. This complex process is carried out by nitrogen-fixing bacteria present in the soil
What's another way nitrogen can be reduced to form ammonia?
Nitrification: nitrates and nitrites, released by decaying organic matter are converted to ammonium ions by nitrifying bacteria present in the soil.
What are the three processes responsible for nitrogen fixation in the biosphere?
- atmospheric (lightning breaks nitrogen molecules making them combine with oxygen)
- biological (certain microbs, usually symbiotic)
- industrial (factories make it)
What are the bacteria and archaea most commonly found in symbiotic nitrogen fixation?
- legumes (beans, peas, clover)
What is leaching in the nitrogen fixation process?
Leaching is the process by which nitrogen that is contained in the soils is removed via water. Nitrates, nitrites and ammonia are all water soluble meaning that they easily dissolve into water.
What are some negative effects of increased nitrogen?
where is most of your food nutrition absorbed?
in the small and large intestine
What is essential to breaking down food before it reaches your intestines?
- salivary glands
what are proteins?
polymers of amino acids
What are lipids?
- fats (triglycerides)
- glucose or fructose
- cellulose and starch
How many amino acids exist, and how many of those are essential to the human body?
What are the basic nutrient groups?
If you're hypoglycemic your body will stimulate glucagon and
convert glycogen to glucose through glycogenolysis
If you're hyperglycemic your body will stimulate insulin and
Convert glucose to glycogen through glycogenesis
What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
- Type 1 Results from body's failure to produce insulin
- Type 2 Results from body's failure to use insulin properly
What is NIDDM referring to?
- non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
- (Type 2 diabetes)
What are examples of low foods on the GI?
- Most fruits,
- whole grains,
- nuts, etc.
What is the gut microbiome theory?