- Hydrology is the geoscience that describes and predicts the occurrence, circulation, and distribution of water of the earth and its atmosphere.
- Hydrogen bonding-
- Hydrogen bonding - the attraction of H to an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, between the positive charges of one molecule (H) and the negatively charged end of another (O)
-Specific heat is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1°C
- latent heat is the energy absorbed or released during a change of state
- Temperature is a measure of the vibratory energy of the molecules
- Viscosity is the resistance of a liquid to motion.
A conservative quantity
- A conservative quantity is one that cannot be created or destroyed within the system. (don't gain or lose in
its just moves from one thing to the next)
- watershed is the area of land that drains water, sediment, and dissolved materials to a common outlet at some point along a stream channel.
- Time Series is a discrete sequence of values with each value assigned to a particular time in the sequence
The flow duration curve
- The flow duration curve is a plot that shows the percentage of time that flow in a stream is likely to equal or exceed some specified value of interest.
Radiation - process by which electromagnetic energy emits from an object; radiant energy flows out of all bodies, with temperature and nature of the surface of the objects playing a key role in radiation effectiveness.
Convection - the transfer of heat by a moving substance (opposite of conduction). --> convection oven
Conduction - the movement of energy from one molecule to another without changes in the relative positions of the molecules.
Convergent (extra-tropical and frontal) resulting from air being forced upward in a low pressure system (e.g. hurricane) or from the lifting of air masses along frontal boundaries; air pushed together has nowhere to go but up
Convective – resulting from convective lifting of an air mass. Convection is the circulatory motion that occurs in a fluid or gas at a non-uniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity
Orographic – resulting from the lifting of air masses due to topography
1.Magnitude – amount of rain
2.Intensity – rainfall per unit of time e.g inches per hour, inches per day, inches per year
3.Duration – how long the rainfall event of interest lasts or the period of rainfall we are interested in
4.Frequency – how often an event occurs (e.g. a specific amount or amount per unit of time)
Drizzle – fine mist with drop about 0.1 - 0.5 millimeters (0.004 – 0.02 in) low intensity
Rain – all liquid precipitation heavier than drizzle, average about 1 millimeter (0.04 in), intensities – light (<0.1in per hr), moderate (0.11 – 0.30 in per hr), heavy (> 0.30 in per hr)
Ice Pellets (sleet) – raindrops freeze as they fall when temperature is below freezing
supercooled rain that is falling on a frozen surface
Hail – 0.2 to 4 in are rounded lumps of ice
3. Latent heat of vaporization and fusion
The latent heat of vaporization is the energy required to overcome the molecular forces of attraction between the particles of a liquid, and bring them to the vapor state, where such attractions are minimal.