Botany Test One General

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Anonymous
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10846
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Botany Test One General
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2010-03-16 19:18:38
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Botany test one general
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General topics for the first botany test
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  1. -phyta
    • Algae
    • Division
  2. -phyceae
    • Algae
    • Class
  3. -ales (Algae)
    • Algae
    • Order
  4. -aceae (Algae)
    • Algae
    • Family
  5. -mycota
    • Fungi
    • Division
  6. -mycetes
    • Fungi
    • Class
  7. -ales (fungi)
    • Fungi
    • Order
  8. -aceae (fungi)
    • Fungi
    • Family
  9. -phyta
    • Plants
    • Division
  10. -opsida
    • Plant
    • Class
  11. -ales (plants)
    • Plant
    • Order
  12. -aceae (plant)
    • Plant
    • Family
  13. Slime molds (plasmodial)
    • myxomycota
    • no individual cells
    • sporangia
    • spores
    • myxamoebae
  14. Slime Molds (Cellular)
    • individual cells
    • pseudoplasmodium
    • slug stage- produces sorocarp
    • sorocarp- produces spores
  15. Water Molds (Oomycota)
    • cellulose cell walls even tho it's fungi
    • oogonium- produces eggs
    • antheridium- produces sperm
    • coenocytic- cell walls encasing tubes with many nuclei and mitochondria
    • *mulitnucleated tissue found in fungi
    • ex) Ick on fish, plasmopara- downy mildew on grapes, phytophthora- late blight of potato
  16. Plasmopara
    • downy mildew of grapes
    • first fungicide
  17. Phytophthora
    late blight of the potato
  18. Chitrids (Chitridomycota)
    • among the simplest of fungi
    • usually unicellular
  19. Real fungi characteristics
    • chitin
    • glycogen: not starch (stores sugars)
    • filamentous: long string cells
    • extra cellular digestion: exude chemical from cells and breaks down food
  20. Real fungi problems
    • decompose all sorts of material
    • produce aflatoxins: can't eat it, carcinogen, gets into corn
    • diseases
  21. Real fungi benefits
    • antibiotics
    • yeast
    • citric acid production
  22. Real fungi growth habits
    • hyphae: individual threads (cells) (singular-hypha)
    • mycelium: collection of hyphae
    • rhizoids: root-like
    • haustoria: root-like, invade plant cell in a mutualistic relationship
  23. Real fungi: Zygomycota
    • name given based on reproduction
    • zygospore is formed
    • ex) black bread mold
    • ex) Pilobulus-cap tosser
    • ex) worm trapping fungi
  24. Real fungi: Zygomycota
    Pilobolus-cap tosser
    • dung fungus
    • shoots sollection of spores towards light
    • land top of grass, eaten by cow
  25. Real fungi: Zygomycota life cycle
  26. Real fungi: Ascomycota examples
    • chestnut blight
    • dutch elm disease
    • morels (eat this type)
    • truffels (found in the ground)
    • yeast
    • ergot (LSD)
  27. Real fungi: Ascomycota life cycle
    • dikaryotic- 2 nuclei, one set of chromosomes in each nucleus (n+n)
    • ascus- nuclei merge and become diploid and form spores?
    • ascospores- 4 or 8 formed, produces by ascus, haploid spores
  28. Real fungi: Deuteromycota
    examples
    • no sexual reproduction, only asexual
    • ex) fungi imperfecti
    • ex) Peicillium roquefortii- roquefort cheese
    • ex) Aspergillus oryzae- produce asexual spores on a head, soy sauce
    • ex) Penicillium- Alexander Fleming 1928, antibiotics
  29. Real fungi: Ascomycota life cycle picture
  30. Real fungi: Basidiomycota (Club fungi)
    examples
    • mushrooms
    • toadstools
    • puffballs
    • shelf fungi
    • rusts and smuts
  31. Real fungi: Basidiomycota life cycle
    Clamp connections- to maintain dikaryotic condition
  32. Puccinia graminis
    Black stem rust of wheat
    • must live on 2 plants to complete life cycle
    • -other plant is barberry
    • pop. of fungi live on barberry, produce dikaryotic spores after connection with wheat-called aeciospores
  33. Hetereceous
    • 2 hosts of one organism
    • ex) wheat rusts-barberry
    • ex) white pine blister rust-gooseberry
    • ex) apple rust-cedar trees
    • ex) corn rust-sorrel
  34. Mycorrhizae
    • fungi has special relationship with roots of other plants, benefits both
    • plant provides carbohydrates
    • fungi provides minerals
  35. Mycorrehizae
    ectomycorrhizae
    • stays outside of root cells
    • root hairs are often absent
  36. Mycorrhizae
    endomycorrhizae
    • goes inside root cells
    • penetrate living cells
  37. Algae
    life style
    • unicellular
    • colonial
    • filamentous (growth in one direction)
    • Thallose (growth in two directions)
  38. Algae
    basic life cycle
    • sporic (alternation of generations)
    • *heteromorphic- can tell stages (sporophyte and gametophyte) apart
    • *isomorphic- hard to tell stages (sporophyte and gametophyte) apart
    • gametes in plants produced by mitosis
    • sporophyte and gametophyte stage

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