Vital signs

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Author:
paish
ID:
108461
Filename:
Vital signs
Updated:
2011-10-12 15:08:12
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vital signs
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Description:
medical vital signs
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  1. average oral/ tympanic temperature for adults.
    98.6 F ( 37 C )
  2. Average rectal temperature for adults.
    99.5 F ( 37.5 C) - the warmest temp.
  3. Average axillary temperaturefor adults.
    97.7 F ( 36.5 C)
  4. Pulse rate for adults?
    60- 100 beats per minute
  5. Respirations for adults?
    12 to 20 breaths per minute
  6. average blood pressure and pulse pressure for adults?
    120/80

    30 to 50 mm Hg
  7. Body temperature is
    heat produced by body processes - the amount of heat lost to the external enviironment


    heat produced - heat lost
  8. Site of temperature measurement?
    • Oral
    • rectal
    • axillary
    • tympanic membrane
    • temporal artery
    • esophageal
    • pulmonary artery
    • urinary bladder
  9. Core temperature measurement sites?
    • Rectum
    • Tympanic Membrane
    • Temporal artery
  10. Surface temperature measurement sites?
    • skin
    • oral
    • axillae
  11. the abilty of a person to control body temperature depends on
    • 1) the degree of temperature exteme
    • 2) the person's ability to sense feeling comfortable or uncomfortable
    • 3) thought process or emotions
    • 4) the person's mobility or ability to remove or add clothes
  12. Factors affecting body temperature
    • Age
    • Excercise
    • Hormone level
    • Circadian Rhythm
    • Stress
    • Environment
  13. The transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another without direct contact between the two.
    Radiation
  14. The transfer of heat from one object to another with direct contact. Small amount of heat lost
    Conduction
  15. The transfer of heat away by air movement. for example a fan
    Convection.
  16. The transfer of heat energy when when a liquid is chaqnged to gas
    Evaporation
  17. Changes in body temperature outside the usual range affect the hypothalmic set point. these changes are related to excess heat production, excess heat loss, minimal heat production, or any combination is..
    Temperature alterations
  18. Phases of Pyrexia (fever)
    • - Pyrogens such as bacteria and viruses elevate body temp, they act as antigens and trigger immune system responses
    • -the hypothalamus reacts to the raise in set point and the body responds by producing and conserving energy.
    • - serveral hours later the body reaches a new set point. during this period the person experiences chills, shivers and feels cold, even though body temp is rising
    • - the phase resolves when the new set point, a higher temp is achieved.
    • -the next phase is the plateau, the chills subdue and the personf eels warm and dry. If the new set point is "overshot", or the pyrogens are removed, the third phase of a febrile episode occures.
    • - the hypothalamus set point drops, initiating heat loss responses. The skin becomes warm and flushed because of vasodilation.
    • - When the fever "breaks" the client becomes afebrile
  19. Cellular hypoxia
    inadequate oxygen
  20. Myocardial hypoxia
    produces angina (chest pain)
  21. cerebral hypoxia
    produces confusion
  22. An elevated body temperature related to the body's inability to promote heat loss or reduce heat production is
    hyperthermia
  23. fever is an upward shift in the set point, hyperthermia results from an overload of the body's thermoregulatory mechanisms. Any disease of trauma to ther hypothalamus impairs heat-loss mechanisms.
  24. Hereditary condition of uncontrolled heat production, occuring when susceptible persons receive certain anesthetic drugs
    Malignant hyperthermia
  25. Classification of hypothermia
    • Mild : 93.2 -96.8 F or 34-36 C
    • Moderate: 86.0-93.2F or 30-34C
    • Severe: <86.0 F or <30 C
  26. Heat loss during prolonged exposure to cold overwhelms the body's ability to produce heat, causing ________. Which is caused by core temp measurements
    Hypothermia
  27. Rectal temperatures are usually 0.9 F or 0.5 C higher than oral temperatures, and axillary temps are usually 0.9 F or 0.5 C lower than oral temperatures
  28. convert C to F is to multiply C by 1.8, and then add 32.

    To go from F to C, you take F, subtract 32, then divide by 1.8.
    easy way to get a rough estimate a rough estimate of C-> F is to double it then add 30

    easy way to get a rough estimate F->C subtract 30 then take half of it

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