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Level at which the greatest vertebral damage has occured.
The most caudal segment of the spinal cord with normal sensory functions as determined by testing the 28 dermatomes on each side of the body.
The most caudal segment of the spinal cord with normal motor function as determined by testing 10 myotomes on each side of the body.
The most caudal segment of the spinal cord with normal sensory and motor function.
Prediction of self-care and ambulation is usually based on the ______ level.
Period immediately following the injury during which there is an abscence of reflex activity, flaccidity, and loss of sensation below the level of the lesion.
Elbow flexors innervation?
Wrist extensors innervation?
Elbow extensors innervation?
Finger flexors innervation?
Little finger abductors innervation?
Trunk flexors innervation?
T6 - T12
Hip flexors innervation?
Knee extensors innervation?
Ankle dorsiflexors innervation?
Long toe extensors innervation?
Bowel and bladder innervation?
S2, S3, S4
All patients with tetraplegia and high-level injury in paraplegia have some degree of _______ impairment.
- Gradual increase during the first 6 months, reaching a plateau about 1 year post injury.
- Influenced by many factors.
The abscence of thermoregulatory responses of sweating and shivering below the level of the lesion results in what?
Impaired temperature control
With impaired temperature control, there may be diaphoresis _____ the level to compensate.
- Typically occurs with lesions above T6, but may be seen at levels close to T6.
- Signs and symptoms: hypertension, sweating, severe headache, increased spasticity, etc...
Decreased blood pressure with movement from horizontal to vertical caused by loss of vasoconstriction and decreased muscle tone.
A peculiar pain below the level of the lesion.
Pain due to improper positioning and ROM exercises as well as muscle imbalances.
The motor level is defined by the lowest key muscle that has a grade of at least 3, providing the key muscles represented by segments above that level are judged to be normal (grade 5).
ASIA definition of "normal"
The shorter the time of spinal shock the ______ the prognosis.
- Muscles with consistency for being innervated by the segments indicated.
- Muscles that add significantly to a patient's functional capability at each successive level of lesion.
Key muscle groups
What do you do when you suspect a patient having autonomic dysreflexia?
- - Sit them up, to decrease BP
- - Look for irritants: full catheter, tight garment
- - Check skin for pressure areas
What to avoid when maintaining or increasing range of motion in patients with paraplegia from a SCI?
- Avoid motion of trunk and excessive motion of hips.
- Avoid SLR greater than 60 degrees.
- Avoid combined hip flexion with knee flexion greater then 90 degrees.
Stretching some muscles less than full range and full stretching of others.
Examples of selective stretching?
- Back extensors
With tetraplegia, what is contraindicated for scapular and shoulder muscles?
Upper extremities activities to decrease asymetric, rotational stress on spine must be performed ______.
What is the main thing a body jacket is preventing?
Used to develop the strength, ROM, endurance, coordination, and the early use of substitutions and compensations for balance and movement.
What can be created to maximize the effect of the force of the muscles being activated.
What is the Learning of Activities sequence?
- Develop stability in a position
- Develop controlled mobility
- Develop functional skill
What gait pattern is used by patients with no hip flexors?
Swing-to and swing through
Hanging on the "Y" ligaments.
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