chapter 3

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Author:
wvuong
ID:
108563
Filename:
chapter 3
Updated:
2011-10-12 21:58:32
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wendy
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Description:
micro 300
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  1. LPS
    • lipopolysaccharides.
    • -highly cariable O- polysaccharide side chains
    • -conserved lipid A (toxic)
    • -acts as endotoxin (fever inducing)
    • -fatty acids are esterified to glucosamine, one of them attach to core polysaccaride (sugar that extends outside cell)
  2. S-Layer
    • composed of symmetrical hexagon protein subunits
    • -protection
    • -molecular sieve
    • -1st described in archaea
    • -recently discovered in G+ bacteria
  3. CAPSULE
    • -most exterior layer
    • -predominantly made from organized carbohydrate: heat labile (sometimes made from protein -eg: bacillus anthracis)
    • -protective (antiphagocytic)
    • -related structures which serve more for attachment (slime - loose network; glycocalix - very fine network)
  4. Mycobacterial envelope structure
    • -Galactan
    • -Arabinan
    • -Mycolic acids: waxy surface
    • -outer bilayer with phenolic glycolipids
    • -capsule with loosely associated phospholipids &phenolic lipids
  5. contents of cytoplasmic
    • -cytoplasmic skeleton
    • - nucleoid
    • -plasmids
    • - ribosomes
    • -specialized structures
  6. Bacterial skeleton
    • -determines cell shape
    • -CreS "Crescentin" (surves innser side of crescent shaped bacteria)
    • -FtsZ (forms a 'Z ring' essential for cell septation; analog to tubulin)
  7. Bacterial Nucleoid
    • single loop of double-stranded DNA
    • (single molecule of DNA; ~4 x 106 bp in many bacteria ; complacted via super coiling)
    • -attached to cell envelope (no membrane separates DNA from cytoplasm; replicates once for each cell division)
  8. Gene Expression
    • RNA plymerase transcribes DNA to mRNA
    • -Ribosome translates RNA to protein
    • ----processes occur simultaneously
  9. intracellular structures related to photosynthesis
    • cyanobacteria have thylakoids
    • -carboxysomes fix carbon
    • -other bacterial photosynthetic pigments
  10. cyanobacteria with thylakoids.
    • -extensively folded inner membrane
    • -contain chlorophyll
    • -ancestor of chloroplasts
  11. carboxysomes fix carbon.
    use energy to make sugar
  12. physobilisome proteins
    collect light energy
  13. storage granules
    intercellular desporits of material
  14. glycogen for...
    energy
  15. PHB - fatty acid polymer
    for energy
  16. polyphosophate
    to store material
  17. sulfur for
    disposal
  18. cell appendages
    • -proteins
    • -pili
    • -fimbria
    • -flagella
  19. cell attachment
    • fimbriae, pili; for bacterial pathogencity
    • -stalks attach cells to surfaces, extension of cell cytoplasm

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