chapter 3

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  1. LPS
    • lipopolysaccharides.
    • -highly cariable O- polysaccharide side chains
    • -conserved lipid A (toxic)
    • -acts as endotoxin (fever inducing)
    • -fatty acids are esterified to glucosamine, one of them attach to core polysaccaride (sugar that extends outside cell)
  2. S-Layer
    • composed of symmetrical hexagon protein subunits
    • -protection
    • -molecular sieve
    • -1st described in archaea
    • -recently discovered in G+ bacteria
    • -most exterior layer
    • -predominantly made from organized carbohydrate: heat labile (sometimes made from protein -eg: bacillus anthracis)
    • -protective (antiphagocytic)
    • -related structures which serve more for attachment (slime - loose network; glycocalix - very fine network)
  4. Mycobacterial envelope structure
    • -Galactan
    • -Arabinan
    • -Mycolic acids: waxy surface
    • -outer bilayer with phenolic glycolipids
    • -capsule with loosely associated phospholipids &phenolic lipids
  5. contents of cytoplasmic
    • -cytoplasmic skeleton
    • - nucleoid
    • -plasmids
    • - ribosomes
    • -specialized structures
  6. Bacterial skeleton
    • -determines cell shape
    • -CreS "Crescentin" (surves innser side of crescent shaped bacteria)
    • -FtsZ (forms a 'Z ring' essential for cell septation; analog to tubulin)
  7. Bacterial Nucleoid
    • single loop of double-stranded DNA
    • (single molecule of DNA; ~4 x 106 bp in many bacteria ; complacted via super coiling)
    • -attached to cell envelope (no membrane separates DNA from cytoplasm; replicates once for each cell division)
  8. Gene Expression
    • RNA plymerase transcribes DNA to mRNA
    • -Ribosome translates RNA to protein
    • ----processes occur simultaneously
  9. intracellular structures related to photosynthesis
    • cyanobacteria have thylakoids
    • -carboxysomes fix carbon
    • -other bacterial photosynthetic pigments
  10. cyanobacteria with thylakoids.
    • -extensively folded inner membrane
    • -contain chlorophyll
    • -ancestor of chloroplasts
  11. carboxysomes fix carbon.
    use energy to make sugar
  12. physobilisome proteins
    collect light energy
  13. storage granules
    intercellular desporits of material
  14. glycogen for...
  15. PHB - fatty acid polymer
    for energy
  16. polyphosophate
    to store material
  17. sulfur for
  18. cell appendages
    • -proteins
    • -pili
    • -fimbria
    • -flagella
  19. cell attachment
    • fimbriae, pili; for bacterial pathogencity
    • -stalks attach cells to surfaces, extension of cell cytoplasm

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chapter 3
2011-10-13 01:58:32

micro 300
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