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the ruler of an Arabic tribe
chosen from one of the leading families by a council of elders
journey of Muhammad & his followers to Madinah
Year 622 BCE
A pilgrimage to Makkah
One of the 5 pillars of Islam
a law code that provides believers with a set of practical laws to regulate daily lives.
successor of Muhammad
temporal leader of the Muslims
"struggle in the way of god"
instrument used by sailors to determine location by stars
tower from which muzzin calls for faithful prayer
the crier who calls for the prayer 5 times a day
patterns repeated to completely cover a surface with a decoration
belief in one god
determine one's occupation, economic potential, and position in society.
partly based on skin color
Rebirth of one's soul in a different form
force by one's actions
determines how one will be reincarnated
divine law that rules Karma
method of training to lead to oneness with God
one who practicces self denial to achieve nirvana
ultimate reality in Buddhism
Origins of Islam
Came from prophet Muhammad
went to hills to meditate and recieved revelations from God through Angel Gabriel
Beliefs of Islam
- Monotheistic: Allah
- Muhammad was not divine
- Christians and Jews were "children of the book"
- Believed that humans rejected Allah's earlier messages by Moses and Jesus
- 5 Pillars of Islam
5 Pillars of Islam
- 1. Allah is the one true god
- 2. Alms to the poor
- 3. Pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in lifetime
- 4. Annual monthly fast (Ramadan)
- 5. Must pray 5 times a day
Observances of Islam
Ramadan: Annual monthly fast from dawn to sunset; when the quran was revieled to Muhammad
Kaaba: Holiest place in Islam; cube structure with "Black Stone"
Spread of Islam
Once Muhammad received the revelations, he gained little followers in Mekkah and went to Medinah. He came back to Mekkah with many more followers. After the death of Muhammad, Abu Bakr was chosen to be the new leader and Islam spread through Arab.
None were forced to convert
What two groups did the followers of the Islamic faith split to? What did they believe?
Sunni and Shiite
Sunni thought that the Umayyads were the rulers of Islam whereas the Shiite thought that the decendents of Ali were the rulers of Islam
What rights did women have in Islamic society?
- Under the quran, women:
- Could Divorce
- could Inherit land/property
- must have a male guardian
Commentary on Aristole's works
Wrote medical encyclopedia
Cyclical view of history
Wrote the Rubaiyat
Origins of Judiasm
Migrated from Mesopotamia to Palestine.
Enslaved until Moses led them out of Egypt
Three aspects of the Jewish faith
- Monotheistic: Yahweh
- Covenent: contract between Jews and Yahweh
- 10 commandments
Religous buildings and symbols of the Jewish faith
- Star of David
- Passover: exodus from Egypt
- Yom Kipur: Day of fasting and pray for forgivness of sins
- Rosh Hashanah: Jewish New Year
- Hanukkah: Rededication of the temple of Jerusalem
- Shavuot: relevation of the Torah
- Shabbat: Gods day of rest
Origins of Christianity
- Teachings of Jesus Christ
- Movement in Judiasm
- Father (God)
- Son (Jesus Christ)
- Holy Spirit (???)
What was God's command?
love the lord your God with all your heart, soul, mind, and stregnth, and love your neighbor as yourself
Christian Holy Literature
What does the New Testament contain?
Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, & John
7 Sacrements of Christianity
- Holy Orders
- Anointing of the Sick
- Holy Week
- 1) Holy Thursday: last supper
- 2) Good Friday: crucifixion of Jesus Christ
- 3) Holy Saturday: Day of silence and prayer
- 4) Easter Sunday: Resurection of Jesus Christ
- Christmas: Celebrates birth of Jesus
- Immaculate Conception
Why did Christianity attract so many followers?
It was personal and offered salavation and eternal life to individuals
Three chief gods of Hinduism
Pilgrimage that followers of Hinduism take?
Origins of Buddhism
Siddhartha Gautima was a rich man that gave up everything he had and went to go meditate under a tree. He then had reached enlightenment and went to spread his word.
Four Noble Truths
- -Ordinary life is full of suffering
- -suffering is caused by desire to satisfy ourselves.
- -way to end suffering is to end desire
- -way to end desire is Middle Path
- Right View
- -knowledge of 4 noble truths
- Right Intention
- -Need to decide what one really wants
- Right Speech
- -speak truth
- Right Action
- Right Livelihood
- -do work that uplifts one's being
- Right Effort
- Right Mindfullness
- Right Concentration
Commemorates birth, enlightenment, and passing to Siddharrtha Gautima.
Origins of Confucianism
Teachings of Confucius
Upset by the violence and moral decay of his age, Confucius traveld to China to get political leaders to follow him
Ideas were political and ethical NOT Spiritual
Two elements of confucianism
- - Duty
- >Parent & Child
- >Husband & Wife
- >Older sibling & younger sibling
- >Older Friend & younger friend
- > Ruler & Subject
- -sence of compassion and empathy for others
- -"do not do unto others what you would not wish done to yourself"
Where was Confucius teachings recorded?
What is Daoism based on?
Teachings of Laozi
Chief ideas discussed where?
Tao Te Ching
How does one follow the will of Heaven?
Let nature take its course.