Unit 2 Review

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Unit 2 Review
2011-10-13 00:04:31
Religion Hinduism Buddhism Islam Judaism Confucianism Taoism Daoism

Unit 2 Review Questions (World History)
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  1. Sheikh
    the ruler of an Arabic tribe

    chosen from one of the leading families by a council of elders
  2. Hijrah
    journey of Muhammad & his followers to Madinah

    Year 622 BCE
  3. Hajj
    A pilgrimage to Makkah

    One of the 5 pillars of Islam
  4. Shari'ah
    a law code that provides believers with a set of practical laws to regulate daily lives.
  5. Caliph
    successor of Muhammad

    temporal leader of the Muslims
  6. Jihad
    "struggle in the way of god"
  7. Sultan
    "holder of power"
  8. Astrolabe
    instrument used by sailors to determine location by stars
  9. Minaret
    tower from which muzzin calls for faithful prayer
  10. Muezzin
    the crier who calls for the prayer 5 times a day
  11. Arabesque
    patterns repeated to completely cover a surface with a decoration
  12. Monotheistic
    belief in one god
  13. Caste System
    determine one's occupation, economic potential, and position in society.

    partly based on skin color
  14. Reincarnation
    Rebirth of one's soul in a different form
  15. Karma
    force by one's actions

    determines how one will be reincarnated
  16. Dharma
    divine law that rules Karma
  17. Yoga
    method of training to lead to oneness with God
  18. Ascetic
    one who practicces self denial to achieve nirvana
  19. Nirvana
    ultimate reality in Buddhism
  20. Origins of Islam
    Came from prophet Muhammad

    went to hills to meditate and recieved revelations from God through Angel Gabriel
  21. Beliefs of Islam
    • Monotheistic: Allah
    • Muhammad was not divine
    • Christians and Jews were "children of the book"
    • Believed that humans rejected Allah's earlier messages by Moses and Jesus
    • Shari'ah
    • Quran
    • 5 Pillars of Islam
  22. 5 Pillars of Islam
    • 1. Allah is the one true god
    • 2. Alms to the poor
    • 3. Pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in lifetime
    • 4. Annual monthly fast (Ramadan)
    • 5. Must pray 5 times a day
  23. Observances of Islam
    (Ramadan, Kaaba)
    Ramadan: Annual monthly fast from dawn to sunset; when the quran was revieled to Muhammad

    Kaaba: Holiest place in Islam; cube structure with "Black Stone"
  24. Spread of Islam
    Once Muhammad received the revelations, he gained little followers in Mekkah and went to Medinah. He came back to Mekkah with many more followers. After the death of Muhammad, Abu Bakr was chosen to be the new leader and Islam spread through Arab.

    None were forced to convert
  25. What two groups did the followers of the Islamic faith split to? What did they believe?
    Sunni and Shiite

    Sunni thought that the Umayyads were the rulers of Islam whereas the Shiite thought that the decendents of Ali were the rulers of Islam
  26. What rights did women have in Islamic society?
    • Under the quran, women:
    • Could Divorce
    • could Inherit land/property
    • must have a male guardian
  27. Ibn-Rushed
    Commentary on Aristole's works
  28. Ibn Sina
    Wrote medical encyclopedia
  29. Ibn-Kaldun
    Cyclical view of history
  30. Omar Khayyam
    Wrote the Rubaiyat
  31. Origins of Judiasm
    Migrated from Mesopotamia to Palestine.

    Enslaved until Moses led them out of Egypt
  32. Three aspects of the Jewish faith
    • Monotheistic: Yahweh
    • Covenent: contract between Jews and Yahweh
    • 10 commandments
  33. Religous buildings and symbols of the Jewish faith
    • Synagogue
    • Star of David
    • Menorah
  34. Jewish holiday
    • Passover: exodus from Egypt
    • Yom Kipur: Day of fasting and pray for forgivness of sins
    • Rosh Hashanah: Jewish New Year
    • Hanukkah: Rededication of the temple of Jerusalem

    • Shavuot: relevation of the Torah
    • Shabbat: Gods day of rest
  35. Origins of Christianity
    • Teachings of Jesus Christ
    • Movement in Judiasm
  36. Trinity
    • Father (God)
    • Son (Jesus Christ)
    • Holy Spirit (???)
  37. What was God's command?
    love the lord your God with all your heart, soul, mind, and stregnth, and love your neighbor as yourself
  38. Christian Holy Literature

    What does the New Testament contain?

    Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, & John
  39. 7 Sacrements of Christianity
    • Baptism
    • Reconciliation
    • Eucharist
    • Confirmation
    • Matrimony
    • Holy Orders
    • Anointing of the Sick
  40. Christian Holidays
    • Holy Week
    • 1) Holy Thursday: last supper
    • 2) Good Friday: crucifixion of Jesus Christ
    • 3) Holy Saturday: Day of silence and prayer
    • 4) Easter Sunday: Resurection of Jesus Christ
    • Christmas: Celebrates birth of Jesus
    • Pentecost
    • Lent
    • Immaculate Conception
  41. Why did Christianity attract so many followers?
    It was personal and offered salavation and eternal life to individuals
  42. Three chief gods of Hinduism
    • Brahmin-creator
    • Siva-destroyer
    • Vishnu-preserver
  43. Pilgrimage that followers of Hinduism take?
    Kumbh Mela
  44. Origins of Buddhism
    Siddhartha Gautima was a rich man that gave up everything he had and went to go meditate under a tree. He then had reached enlightenment and went to spread his word.
  45. Four Noble Truths
    • -Ordinary life is full of suffering
    • -suffering is caused by desire to satisfy ourselves.
    • -way to end suffering is to end desire
    • -way to end desire is Middle Path
  46. Middle Path
    • Right View
    • -knowledge of 4 noble truths
    • Right Intention
    • -Need to decide what one really wants
    • Right Speech
    • -speak truth
    • Right Action
    • Right Livelihood
    • -do work that uplifts one's being
    • Right Effort
    • Right Mindfullness
    • Right Concentration
    • -meditation
  47. Vesak
    Commemorates birth, enlightenment, and passing to Siddharrtha Gautima.
  48. Origins of Confucianism
    Teachings of Confucius

    Upset by the violence and moral decay of his age, Confucius traveld to China to get political leaders to follow him

    Ideas were political and ethical NOT Spiritual
  49. Two elements of confucianism
    • - Duty
    • >Parent & Child
    • >Husband & Wife
    • >Older sibling & younger sibling
    • >Older Friend & younger friend
    • > Ruler & Subject

    • Humanity
    • -sence of compassion and empathy for others
    • -"do not do unto others what you would not wish done to yourself"
  50. Where was Confucius teachings recorded?
  51. What is Daoism based on?
    Teachings of Laozi
  52. Chief ideas discussed where?
    Tao Te Ching
  53. How does one follow the will of Heaven?
    Let nature take its course.