Biochem Exam 3 Glycolysis,gluconeogenesis,TCA cycle,Oxidative phosphorylation

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ekinneyl
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Biochem Exam 3 Glycolysis,gluconeogenesis,TCA cycle,Oxidative phosphorylation
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2011-10-20 18:15:55
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Glycolysis Biochemistry
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Review of the enzymes and steps in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis
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  1. Glycolysis:
    The first step in glycolysis is the conversion of
    glucose + ATP --> ? + ADP + H
    glucose 6-phosphate
  2. The enzyme that catylzes the first step of glycolysis is _______ (glucose --> glucose 6-phosphate)
    hexokinase
  3. Glycolysis:
    The 2nd step in glycolysis is the conversion of glucose 6-phosphate ---> ?
    fructose 6-phosphate
  4. The enzyme that catalyzes the second step of glycolysis is ________ (glucose 6-phosphate --> fructose 6-phosphate)
    phosphoglucose isomerase
  5. Glycolysis:
    The 3rd step of glycolysis is the conversion of fructose 6-phosphate + ATP---->? + ADP + H
    fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
  6. The enzyme that catalyzes the third step of glycolysis is __________ (fructose 6-phosphate --> fructose 1,6-bisphosphate)
    phosphofructokinase
  7. Glycolysis:
    The 4th step of glycolysis is the conversion of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate ---> ?
    dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) + glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP)
  8. The enzyme that catalyzes the fourth step of glycolysis is _________ (fructose 1,6 bisphosphate --> GAP + DHAP)
    aldolase
  9. Can DHAP enter glycolysis directly?
    No
  10. Glycolysis:
    In the fifth step of glycolysis DHAP can be converted to ---> ?
    GAP (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate)
  11. Glycolysis:
    The 6th step of glycolysis is in which GAP + Pi + NAD is converted to ---> ?
    1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + NADH + H
  12. The enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of DHAP to GAP is _____ (Fifth step of glycolysis)
    Triose phosphate isomerase
  13. The enzyme that catalyzes the 6th step of glycolysis is _________ ( GAP --> 1,3-BPG)
    glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
  14. Glycolysis:
    The 7th step in glycolysis is the conversion of 1,3-BPG + ADP ----> ?
    3-phosphoglycerate + ATP
  15. The enzyme that catalyzes the seventh step of glycolysis is ____ (1,3 BPG + ADP --> 3-phosphoglycerate + ATP)
    phosphoglycerate kinase
  16. Glycolysis:
    The 8th step of glycolysis is the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate --> ?
    2-phosphoglycerate
  17. The enzyme that catalyzes the eigth step of glycolysis is _________ (3-phosphoglycerate --> 2-phosphoglycerate)
    phosphoglycerate mutase
  18. Glycolysis:
    The ninth step glycolysis is the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate ---> ??
    phosphoenolpyruvate + H2O
  19. The enzyme that catalyzes the ninth step of glycolysis is ______ (2-phosphoglycerate --> phosphoenolpyruvate + H20)
    enolase
  20. Glycolysis:
    The tenth step of glycolysis is the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate + ADP + H ---> ?
    pyruvate + ATP
  21. The enzyme that catalyzes the tenth step of glycolysis is ______ (phosphoenolpyruvate + ADP ---> pyruvate + ATP)
    pyruvate kinase
  22. The 3 allosteric enzymes in glycolysis are ___, ____, ____
    Hexokinase, phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase
  23. What are the 3 regalatory enzymes of glycolysis?
    Hexokinase, PFK (Phosphofructokinase), pyruvate kinase
  24. Galactose enters the glycolytic pathway by being converted to _____ in _____ number of steps.
    glucose 6-phosphate, 4
  25. Fructose can enter the glycolytic pathway by the _______ pathway in the liver, while in other tissues fructose can be phosphorylated into the glycolytic intermediate ________ by hexokinase.
    fructose 1-phosphate pathway, fructose 6-phosphate
  26. The fructose 1-phosphate pathway, in the liver, takes fructose to ______ by the enzyme _____ in the first step. This product is then split into ______ and ______, an intermediate in glycolysis. The aldol cleavage in the second step is catalyzed by a specific fructose 1-phosphate aldolase.
    fructose 1-phosphate, fructokinase. Glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP).
  27. Glyceraldehyde enters into the glycolytic pathway by being converted into _______ by the enzyme ______
    glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, hexokinase
  28. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is compsed of what 3 enzymes?
    • E1- Pyruvate dehydrogenase component
    • E2- Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase
    • E3- Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase
  29. The cofactor required for pyruvate dehydrogenase is _______
    TPP (thiamine pyrophosphate)
  30. The cofactor required for dihydrolipoyl transacetylase is __________
    Lipoamide
  31. The cofactor (prosthetic group) required for dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase is _______
    FAD
  32. Pyruvate dehydrogenase, which converts pyruvate to acetly CoA requires the 5 coenzymes __ __ __ __ and ___
    • 1.) TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate)
    • 2.) lipoic acid
    • 3.) FAD
    • 4.) Coenzyme A (CoA)
    • 5.) NAD+
  33. PDH is inhibited in E1 by ______, E2 by _____ and E3 by _______
    • E1- COVALENTLY MODIFIED
    • E2- acetly CoA
    • E3- NADH
  34. decarboxylase requires the coenzyme _____
    Thiamin
  35. carboxylase requires the coenzyme _______
    biotin
  36. dehydrogenase requires the coenzymes ____, ____, ____
    NAD+, FAD, NADP+
  37. NAD and NADP+ uses what vitamin?
    Niacin (remember Niacin for NAD)
  38. FAD and FMN uses what vitamin?
    Riboflavin (remember riboflavin for FAD)
  39. What is the only enzyme of the TCA cycle NOT in the mitochondrial cytoplasm?
    Succinate dehydrogenase, (it is on the mitochondrial inner membrane)
  40. What does the enzyme pyruvate carboxylase catalyze?
    Pyruvate ----> oxaloacetate
  41. What does the enzyme pyruvate kinase catalyze?
    Phosphoenolpyruvate -----> pyruvate, (this is covalently modified when inhibited, witht he L form in the liver and the M form in the muscle and brain)
  42. What does the enzyme pyruvate decarboyxlase catalyze?
    pyruvate -----> acetaldehyde (the first step of converting to pyruvate to ethanol in the fermentation pathway. The second step is acetaldehyde to ethanol by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase)
  43. What does the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase catalyze?
    Pyruvate------> Acetly CoA
  44. True or false: Phosphofructokinase uses ATP as both a substrate and an alosteric regulator?
    True

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