Syntax Files D1 2nd Test
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- system of marking that provides information about an NP's function within the sentence
- usually by indicating its grammatical relation and/or thematic role
- usually expressed by inflection, which can be in the form of affixation or suppletion
grammatical (syntactic) case
carries information about NP's grammatical relation
encodes information about thematic roles
- case provides way to distinguish between subjects and D.O.
- no need to rely on word order
- 'case languages' permit considerable freedom in the ordering of verb's arguments
differential object marking
- omit D.O. case marker when it has particular semantic properties
- 1) higher on animacy => more likely to be case marked
- human > animate > inanimate
- 2) higher on definite scale => more likely to be case marked
- personal pronoun > proper name > definite NP > indefinite specifc NP > non-specifc NP
- (definite: referent is familiar to speaker and addressee)
- (specific: speaker has particular referent in mind)
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