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What are the layers of the heart wall in order?
(outer to inner)
What tissue compose the middle layer of the heart?
What contributes to the inner layer of the heart?
epith. lining + valves
List the chambers, valves, and major vessels associated with the heart in order of flow?
- 1. superior + inferior vena cavae > R atrium >tricuspid valve
- 2. R ventricle > pulmonary valve > pulmonary trunk > pulmonary arteries > pulmonary circ.
- 3. pulmonary veins > L atrium > bicuspid (mitral) valve
- 4. L ventricle > aortic valve > aorta > systemic cir.
Which ventricle would undergo hypertrophy of it's wall to overcomethe following: narrowing of a specific vessel or valve, lung disorder, or hypertension?
What vessels deliver oxygen to the myocardium?
Define myocardial infarction?
tissue death in myocardium d/t decrease flow or oxygen in coronary artery
Name the pacemaker and identify its location?
sinoatrial node > Ratrium (RA)
What is the length of the refractory period of the conduction system? And what does it prevent?
long, extreme heart rate
recording of electrical activity during cardiac cycle
What are the 3 waves of electrocardiogram and what does each represent?
- 1. P wave > atrial depolarization
- 2. QRS complex > ventrical depolarization
- 3. T wave > ventrical repolarization
The cardiac cycle is often described in terms of systole and diastole of which chamber? Why?
L ventricle, bc it works the hardest
What are the functions and wall characteristics of arteries?
- heart > cap.
- middle layer: elastic fibers + smooth muscle
What are the functions and wall characteristics of capillaries?
- wall: endothelium
- (simple squam. epi.)
What are the functions and wall characteristics of veins?
- cap. > heart
- wall: same as arteries + valves
What effect does hydrostatic pressure have on fluid movement between blood and the interstitial space?
fluid from blood > interstitial space (proximal)
What effect does osmotic pressure have on fluid movement between the blood and the interstitial space?
fluid from int. space > blood d/t albumin (distal)
What is the reference value for systemic pressure?
With reference to systemic pressure, define systolic pressure?
highest aortic pressure during systole
With reference to systemic pressure, define diastolic pressure?
lowest aortic pressure during diastole
What are the 2 basic factors that influence arterial pressure?
CO and peripheral resistance
Define cardiac output?
blood pumped by either ventricle per minute
Define stroke volume?
blood pumped by either ventricle per beat
Define heart rate?
Define peripheral resistance?
opposition to flow/ determined by vessel diameter
What is the average range for adult cardiac output?
4-6 L per min.
Nervous system regulation of blood pressure by: modification of cardiac output?
- 1. input- baroreceptors (monitor BP)
- 2. control center- cardiac regulatory center
- 3. output- ANS>HR altered> CO altered
Nervous system regulation of blood pressure by: mofification of peripheral resistance?
- 1. input- baroreceptors (BP), chemoreceptors (O2, CO2)
- 2. control center- vasomotor center
- 3. output- ANS>vessel diam. change>peripheral resistance change
List the major arteries in order of flow for the extremeties?
- 1. upper: subclavian > axillary > brachial > radial > ulnar > hand
- 2. lower: common iliac > ext. iliac > femoral > popliteal > ant. + post. tibial > foot
List the major veins in order of flow for the extremeties?
- 1. upper:
- a. radial + ulnar > brachial > axillary > subclavian ->--> SVC
- b. basilic + cephalic----->axillary
- 2. lower:
- a. ant. + post. tibial > popliteal > femoral > ext. iliac > common iliac > IVC
- b. great saphenous v.----->femoral v.
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