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emphasizes the uniqueness and freedom of the human person as an individual (what makes each life a unique, personal experience) as opposed to the essence of a human being (what makes all of us alike)
there are necessary properties of things, that these are logically prior to the existence of the individuals which instantiate them, and that their classification depends upon their satisfaction of sets of necessary conditions
the philosophical position that whether God exists or not cannot be known
the Buddhist doctrine that there is no permanent, separate, individual, ego-self
representing something non-human (such as animals or God) in human likeness
the denial of theism, usually on the basis that everything can be explained without God
in Hinduism, the Self or soul, which endures through successive reincarnations as an expression of the divine and as a carrier of karma.
in Hinduism, the ultimate, absolute reality of the cosmos, the world-soul with which atman is identified and seeks union.
the belief that an impersonal, mechanical genius began the world and has since left it alone
the Buddhist term for the realization that comes from seeing the world as it actually is
The theory that women should have political, legal, economic, and social rights equal to those of men and should define their own roles
a sacred saying of the Prophet Muhammad but not part of the Qur'an in which God speaks in the first person through the mouth of the Prophet
the theory that pleasure is the highest good
indwelling within a process, as God is described as indwelling in creation
in Islam, struggle or striving in the path of God, both within oneself and, when necessary, in external battle
the male principle in West African thought
for the Greeks, the rational, ordering principle of the cosmos
the female principle in West African thought
the quest for certainty and unitive truth, a single and coherent explanation of reality that gives it meaning
belief in one God
the pursuit of knowledge of God, using natural intelligence rather than supernatural revelation
in Hinduism, the absolute conceived without attributes
a state in which individuality is extinguished or the state of enlightenment in which all pain, suffering, mental anguish, and the need for successive rebirths disappear
state of unlimited power, usually attributed to God
the state of unlimited knowledge, usually attributed to God
a form of social organization in which the father is recognized as head of the family or tribe and men control most of the formal and informal power, as well as define the role of women
the belief in many Gods
the recognition that certainty andunitive truth are not possible because existence and reality are partial, inconsistent, plural, and multiple
in Hinduism, the absolute conceived with attributes
the conception of God as a unitary being
literally, "rule by God"; the fusion of church and state
the justification of the goodness of God in the face of the fact of evil
the rational organization of relgious beliefs into a logical system
existing beyond and thus independent of the space-time world
Aristophanes' 2 headed person
we used to be a 2 headed being, with 4 legs, and 4 arms and we were hubris: (arrogant) zeus split us all to roam the world looking for our other half known earthly love.
Four Noble Truths
- Life is painful and filled with suffering (dukkha)
- The cause of suffering is desire (tenha)
- The end of suffering consists of overcoming such desires (nirvana). To reach nirvana is to end the cycle of birth, death, rebirth.
- One achieves nirvana through the eightfold path (marga)
a male embryo received a soul about the 14th day after conception, whereas the female embryo had to wait until about the 18th day. -Aristotle
mystics of Islam that seek just the sort of bliss of sharing beliefs and practices of more mainstrem muslims and they yearn to be annihilated in God.
Alfred North Whitehead
12th century philosopher; reality is a dynmaic process in which God both affects and is conditoined by events in the temporal world
Francis of Assisi
13th century founder of the Franciscan Order who is well known for his sense of intimacy with other animals and birds and his gentle attitude toward all living things
Mechthilde of Magdeburg
Near Berlin, a thriteeth-century German mystic, found poetic language more conducive than prose to expressing her experience; calling herself God's fiance.
Hildegarde von Bingen
Near Bonn in modern Germany, a near contemporary of Thomas Aquinas described the voice of God appointing her to wrrite of what she has learned through her visionary experiences.
Wrote "the Birth of Tragedy" in 1870's and draw attention from the modern world back to the world of Aristotle and the classic Greek dramatists of the 4th and 5th centuries. Theoretical man - of which Socrtes was perhaps the best example - arrived to calm our fears and represent nature as perfectly rational, understandable, and intelligible.
A priest that is a native of New Mexico that talked about how spirituallism is not defined by their secular humanism
the woman that lived on a plantation in guatemala but was an indian
Founder of Buddhism
created Existentialism in the mid-nineteenth century who shifted the focus of philosphy from essence (in this case, what human nature is like) to existence.
Thich Naht Hahn
vietnamese buddhist born in 1926
a 17th century political philosopher who was a thoroughgoing materialist. Nature is the highest power
Essay: Draw the matrix which illustrates Blaise Pascal's Wager. Label and fill in all sections. Explain each of the four sections and Pascal's conclusion.
- I choose to Believe I choose not to believe
- There is a God infinite gain(eternal life) infinite loss(eternal suffering)
- There is no God Finite loss(give up few pleasures) Finite gain (being right-after death)
Essay: Discuss three intuitive views of God.
Essay: Explain Buddha's Four Noble Truths. What, if any, principles of the eightfold path do you find helpful?
- (dukkha) Life is painful and filled with suffering
- (tenha)The cause of suffering is desire
- (nirvana)The end of suffering consists of overcoming such desires . To reach nirvana is to end the cycle of birth, death, rebirth.
- (marga)One achieves nirvana through the eightfold path
- The 2nd- Right Intention: to overcome desires, to love others, to harm no living being.
Essay: Explain Aquinas' five cosmological proofs of the existence of God.
- Efficient Cause
- Degrees of perfection
- Order and Purpose
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