Philosophy2.txt

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Philosophy2.txt
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Intro midterm
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  1. Existentialism
    emphasizes the uniqueness and freedom of the human person as an individual (what makes each life a unique, personal experience) as opposed to the essence of a human being (what makes all of us alike)
  2. Essentialism
    there are necessary properties of things, that these are logically prior to the existence of the individuals which instantiate them, and that their classification depends upon their satisfaction of sets of necessary conditions
  3. Agnosticism
    the philosophical position that whether God exists or not cannot be known
  4. Anatman
    the Buddhist doctrine that there is no permanent, separate, individual, ego-self
  5. anthropomorphism
    representing something non-human (such as animals or God) in human likeness
  6. Atheism
    the denial of theism, usually on the basis that everything can be explained without God
  7. Atman
    in Hinduism, the Self or soul, which endures through successive reincarnations as an expression of the divine and as a carrier of karma.
  8. Brahman
    in Hinduism, the ultimate, absolute reality of the cosmos, the world-soul with which atman is identified and seeks union.
  9. Deism
    the belief that an impersonal, mechanical genius began the world and has since left it alone
  10. Enlightenment
    the Buddhist term for the realization that comes from seeing the world as it actually is
  11. Feminism
    The theory that women should have political, legal, economic, and social rights equal to those of men and should define their own roles
  12. Hadith
    a sacred saying of the Prophet Muhammad but not part of the Qur'an in which God speaks in the first person through the mouth of the Prophet
  13. Henotheism
    the theory that pleasure is the highest good
  14. Immanent
    indwelling within a process, as God is described as indwelling in creation
  15. Jihad
    in Islam, struggle or striving in the path of God, both within oneself and, when necessary, in external battle
  16. Lisa
    the male principle in West African thought
  17. Logos
    for the Greeks, the rational, ordering principle of the cosmos
  18. Mawu
    the female principle in West African thought
  19. Modernism
    the quest for certainty and unitive truth, a single and coherent explanation of reality that gives it meaning
  20. Monotheism
    belief in one God
  21. Natural theology
    the pursuit of knowledge of God, using natural intelligence rather than supernatural revelation
  22. Nirguna Brahman
    in Hinduism, the absolute conceived without attributes
  23. Nirvana
    a state in which individuality is extinguished or the state of enlightenment in which all pain, suffering, mental anguish, and the need for successive rebirths disappear
  24. Omnipotence
    state of unlimited power, usually attributed to God
  25. Omniscience
    the state of unlimited knowledge, usually attributed to God
  26. Patriarchy
    a form of social organization in which the father is recognized as head of the family or tribe and men control most of the formal and informal power, as well as define the role of women
  27. Polytheism
    the belief in many Gods
  28. Post-modernism
    the recognition that certainty andunitive truth are not possible because existence and reality are partial, inconsistent, plural, and multiple
  29. Saguna Brahman
    in Hinduism, the absolute conceived with attributes
  30. Theism
    the conception of God as a unitary being
  31. Theocracy
    literally, "rule by God"; the fusion of church and state
  32. Theodicy
    the justification of the goodness of God in the face of the fact of evil
  33. Theology
    the rational organization of relgious beliefs into a logical system
  34. Transcendent
    existing beyond and thus independent of the space-time world
  35. Aristophanes' 2 headed person
    we used to be a 2 headed being, with 4 legs, and 4 arms and we were hubris: (arrogant) zeus split us all to roam the world looking for our other half known earthly love.
  36. Four Noble Truths
    • Life is painful and filled with suffering (dukkha)
    • The cause of suffering is desire (tenha)
    • The end of suffering consists of overcoming such desires (nirvana). To reach nirvana is to end the cycle of birth, death, rebirth.
    • One achieves nirvana through the eightfold path (marga)
  37. Ensoulment
    a male embryo received a soul about the 14th day after conception, whereas the female embryo had to wait until about the 18th day. -Aristotle
  38. Sufi
    mystics of Islam that seek just the sort of bliss of sharing beliefs and practices of more mainstrem muslims and they yearn to be annihilated in God.
  39. Alfred North Whitehead
    12th century philosopher; reality is a dynmaic process in which God both affects and is conditoined by events in the temporal world
  40. Francis of Assisi
    13th century founder of the Franciscan Order who is well known for his sense of intimacy with other animals and birds and his gentle attitude toward all living things
  41. Mechthilde of Magdeburg
    Near Berlin, a thriteeth-century German mystic, found poetic language more conducive than prose to expressing her experience; calling herself God's fiance.
  42. Hildegarde von Bingen
    Near Bonn in modern Germany, a near contemporary of Thomas Aquinas described the voice of God appointing her to wrrite of what she has learned through her visionary experiences.
  43. Jean-Paul Sartre
    French existentialist
  44. Friedrich Nietzsche
    Wrote "the Birth of Tragedy" in 1870's and draw attention from the modern world back to the world of Aristotle and the classic Greek dramatists of the 4th and 5th centuries. Theoretical man - of which Socrtes was perhaps the best example - arrived to calm our fears and represent nature as perfectly rational, understandable, and intelligible.
  45. Jerome Martinez
    A priest that is a native of New Mexico that talked about how spirituallism is not defined by their secular humanism
  46. Rigoberta Menchu
    the woman that lived on a plantation in guatemala but was an indian
  47. Siddhartha Gautama
    Founder of Buddhism
  48. Soren Kierkegaard
    created Existentialism in the mid-nineteenth century who shifted the focus of philosphy from essence (in this case, what human nature is like) to existence.
  49. Thich Naht Hahn
    vietnamese buddhist born in 1926
  50. Thomas Hobbes
    a 17th century political philosopher who was a thoroughgoing materialist. Nature is the highest power
  51. Essay: Draw the matrix which illustrates Blaise Pascal's Wager. Label and fill in all sections. Explain each of the four sections and Pascal's conclusion.
    • I choose to Believe I choose not to believe
    • There is a God infinite gain(eternal life) infinite loss(eternal suffering)
    • There is no God Finite loss(give up few pleasures) Finite gain (being right-after death)
  52. Essay: Discuss three intuitive views of God.
    • Faith
    • Hope
    • Love
  53. Essay: Explain Buddha's Four Noble Truths. What, if any, principles of the eightfold path do you find helpful?
    • (dukkha) Life is painful and filled with suffering
    • (tenha)The cause of suffering is desire
    • (nirvana)The end of suffering consists of overcoming such desires . To reach nirvana is to end the cycle of birth, death, rebirth.
    • (marga)One achieves nirvana through the eightfold path
    • The 2nd- Right Intention: to overcome desires, to love others, to harm no living being.
  54. Essay: Explain Aquinas' five cosmological proofs of the existence of God.
    • Motion
    • Efficient Cause
    • Necessity
    • Degrees of perfection
    • Order and Purpose

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