34 oncology

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34 oncology
2011-10-13 07:45:15
34 MS

34 MS
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  1. Disease resulting from uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells
  2. what does cancer cause
    malignant cellular tumors
  3. •Second-leading cause of death in the US
    •Group of more than 200 different diseases that can attack any tissue or organ
  4. •Survival rates influenced by:
    • –Type of cancer
    • –Progression of disease at diagnosis
    • –Client’s response to treatment
  5. –Any abnormal growth of new tissue
  6. –Non-progressive
    –Do not spread to neighboring tissues, usually harmless unless it interferes w/vital functions.
  7. Cancer Pathophysiology
  8. •Uncontrolled growth of abnormal tissues!
  9. –Irregularly shaped masses w/fingerlike projections
    –Becoming progressively worse, spread rapidly
    –Often resulting in death
  10. –Chemical substance that promotes development of cancer
  11. cancer Occurring in infectionfighting organs –ie: lymphatic tissues
  12. •Lymphomas
  13. –Cancer Occurring in blood-forming organs
    –Ie: spleen and bone marrow
  14. –Cancer Occurring in connective tissue
    –Ie: bone
  15. –Cancer Occurring in epithelial tissue
    –Ie: skin
  16. cancer risk factor
    • •Environmental
    • •Lifestyle
    • •Genetic
    • •Viral
  17. Lifestyle Guidelines to Decrease Risk of cancer
    • •Do not smoke or use tobacco in any form
    • •Avoid overexposure to sun or indoor tanning
    • •Eat healthy diet
    • •Get plenty of exercise
    • •Have physical exam on regular basis
    • •Get plenty of sleep
    • •Keep weight within normal limits
    • •Practice regular self-exam
    • –See physician if changes noted
    • •Know and follow health and safety rules in workplace
  18. first step in cancer prevention
    Risk assessment: When cancer develops, earlier the detection, more likely the control
  19. Cancer checkup recommendations:
    –Every three years for people ages 20 to 39

    –Annually for people ages 40 or more
  20. Diagnostic testing for cancer
    • •Blood tests
    • –E.g., tumor markers

    •Stool tests for occult blood

    • •Radiologic studies
    • –E.g., mammograms

    • •Invasive studies
    • –E.g., colonoscopy
  21. staging of tumors classification
    • TNM classification
    • –T = anatomical size of tumor
    • –N = extent of lymph node involvement
    • –M = presence or absence of metastasis
  22. what does staging of tumors influence
    treatment options and predicts overall prognosis
  23. Tumor cells that retain many identifiable tissue characteristics of original cell
    well differentiated
  24. Tumor cells having little similarity to tissue of origin
  25. •Tumors containing poorly differentiated cells are more aggressive in growth and may display uncharacteristic behaviors which can lead to?
    poorer prognosis
  26. treatment modalities for cancer
    • surgery
    • radiation
    • chemotherapy
    • biotherapy
    • hormone therapy
    • photodynamic therapy
    • bone marrow transplant
  27. –Antineoplastics alone or in combination with radiation or surgery
    –Affect DNA synthesis and function
  28. –External – high energy radiation to specific parts; outpatient

    –Internal – radioactive isotopes directly in body; Sealed or unsealed sources
  29. –Excising the tumor to relieve complications.
    –Palliative therapy
  30. –(BRM’s) agents that stimulate body’s natural immune system
  31. –Used for esophageal cancer and early stage lung cancer
    –Injection of light activated drug that targets cancer cells
    photodynamic therapy
  32. –Deprives cancerous cells of hormones
    –Ie: (ovaries) oophorrectomy or testicles (orchiectomy) removal
    hormone therapy
  33. –Used for cancers that respond high doses of chemotherapy or radiation

    –Aspirate and store a fraction of bone marrow, expose client to high dose of radiation/chemo, re-infuse marrow
    bone marrow transplantation
  34. state of malnutrition and muscle (protein) wasting
  35. types of symptom management
  36. •Bone marrow dysfunction
    • •Nutritional alterations
    • –Cachexia – state of malnutrition and muscle (protein) wasting
    • •Pain
    • •Fatigue
    • •Alopecia
    • –2-3 wks after tx and grows back 8 wks after
    • •Odors
    • •Dyspnea
    • •Bowel dysfunctions
    • •Pathological fractures
    • –Associated with metastasis to bone
    • •Ascites
    • –Associated with abdominal cancers
    • •Sexual alterations
  37. cancer medical emergencies
    • •Cardiac tamponade
    • •Hypercalcemia
    • •Spinal cord compression
    • •Superior vena cava syndrome
  38. –Formation of pericardial fluid, reduces cardiac output, compresses the heart.
    cardiac tamponade
  39. psychosocial alteration
    • •Each client responds differently to diagnosis depending on coping mechanisms and support systems
    • •Cancer also affects client’s family
    • –Loss of control
    • –Changes in body image
    • –Financial burdens
  40. nursing intervention for cancer
    • •Be available to offer support and reassurance
    • •Encourage client to express fears and concerns
    • •Provide explanations and answer questions
    • •Give client and family privacy
    • •Touch
    • –Often most comforting intervention
    • •Keep client comfortable
    • •Provide pain management
    • •Offer counseling if necessary