18 nutrition

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sanchez
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108644
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18 nutrition
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2011-10-13 07:44:51
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18 MS
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18 MS
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  1. All processes involved in consuming and using food for energy, maintenance, and growth:
    • –Ingestion
    • –Digestion
    • –Absorption
    • –Metabolism
    • –Excretion
  2. Taking food into digestive tract
    ingestion
  3. •Mechanical and chemical processes converting nutrients to physically absorbable state:
    digestion
  4. disgestion involves
    • –Mastication
    • •Chewing

    • –Deglutition
    • •Swallowing

    • –Peristalsis
    • •Rhythmic, coordinated, serial contractions of smooth muscles of gastrointestinal (GI) tract

    • –Chyme
    • •Acidic, semi-fluid paste
  5. •Process whereby end products of digestion pass through epithelial membranes in small and large intestines and into blood or lymph systems
    absorption
  6. –Small finger-like projections that line small intestine
    –Most nutrients absorbed directly through villi
    villi
  7. •Conversion of nutrients into energy
    metabolism
  8. –New molecules synthesized and formed
    –Requires energy
    anabolsim
  9. –Tissues broken down to component parts
    –Releases energy
    catabolism
  10. –Amount of energy needed to maintain essential physiologic functions
    basal metabolism
  11. –Rate of energy utilization in body expressed in calories
    metabolic rate
  12. •Process of eliminating or removing waste products from body
    •Occurs via GI tract, kidneys, lungs, and sweat glands
    excretion
  13. •Body must have six types of nutrients to function efficiently and effectively:
    • -water
    • –Carbohydrates
    • –Fats
    • –Proteins
    • –Vitamins
    • –Minerals
  14. •Most important nutrient
    water
  15. water is
    •Approximately ________ percent of adult’s weight
    55-65
  16. water is
    •Approximately ________ percent of infant’s weight
    70-75
  17. Generally, _____ milliliters (ml) of water needed to process every _____ kilocalories (kcal) eaten
    1000

    1000
  18. Fx of water
    • •Solvent
    • •Transporter
    • •Regulator of body temperature
    • •Lubricant
    • •Component of all cells
    • •Hydrolysis
  19. is water abosrobed or digested
    absorbed
  20. is water stored?
    no it is excreted daily
  21. 4 ways body loses water
    • –Urine
    • –Feces
    • –Perspiration
    • –Respiration
  22. carbs is made up of?
  23. •Made of elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO)
  24. chief source of energy for all body functions
    carbs
  25. •Primary source of energy for body
    •Approximately half-day supply stored in liver and muscles for use as needed
    •Spares proteins from being used for energy
    •Needed to oxidize fats and for synthesis of fatty and amino acids
    carbs
  26. simple carbs
    –Single sugars or monosaccharides
  27. double sugar
    • –Two single sugars joined together
    • •Disaccharides
  28. complex carbs
    • –Many single sugars joined together
    • •Polysaccharides
  29. excess carbs is converted to?
    • converted to glycogen
    • –Stored in liver or as fat
  30. carbs digestion begins and ends where?

    is absorbed where?
    • •Digestion begins in mouth and ends in small intestine
    • –Little takes place in stomach

    •Absorption takes place in villi
  31. excess carbs can cause?
    obesity, tooth decay, stomach lining irritation, and flatulence
  32. •Most concentrated energy source in diet
    •Provides 9 kcal per gram
    •Also known as lipidsComposed of carbon, hydrogen, and less oxygen than carbohydrates
    fats
  33. recommended fat intake
    –No more than 25 to 30 percent of daily intake
  34. fat FX
    • •Provides concentrated energy
    • •absorb fat-soluble vitamins
    • •Major component of cell membranes and myelin sheaths
    • •Improves flavor, delays emptying time
    • •Protects and helps hold organs in place
    • •Insulates body
  35. –True fats
    –Composed of one glycerol molecule attached to three fatty-acid molecules
    triglycerides
  36. –Lipoids
    –Composed of glycerol, fatty acids, and phosphorus
    phospholipids
  37. –Sterol
    –Liver produces more than _____milligrams (mg) every day
    cholesterol

    1000
  38. cholesterol digestion begins
    in small intestines
  39. •Only nutrient that can build, repair, and maintain body tissues
    cholesterol
  40. •Provides amino acids needed to build, repair, and maintain body tissues
    •Assists in regulating fluid balance
    •Serves as vital part of enzymes, hormones, and blood plasma
    •Used to build antibodies
    •Can be converted to glucose for energy
    cholesterol function
  41. –Contain all nine essential amino acids
    complete protein
  42. •Organic compounds essential to life and health
    •Regulate body processes
    –Needed in very small amounts
    vitamin
  43. fat soluble vitamins
    A, D, E, and K
  44. •B complex and C vitamins
    water soluble vitamins
  45. •Inorganic elements that help regulate body processes and/or serve as structural components of body
    mineral
  46. minerals are found in
    water and unprocessed foods
  47. lacto- ovo vegetarians
    • –Use dairy products and eggs
    • –Avoid meat, poultry, or fish
  48. lacto vegetarian
    • –Use dairy products
    • –Avoid meat, poultry, or eggs
  49. vegan
    • –Use soybeans, chickpeas, meat analogues, and tofu
    • –Avoid all animal foods
  50. –Provide recommendations to avoid overnutrition
    dietary guideline
  51. –Identify amount of nutrients required by population to prevent deficiency
    •Recommended dietary allowances (RDA)
  52. –Identifies amount of nutrients required to decrease risk of chronic disease
    •Dietary reference intake (RFI)
  53. –Occurs when nutrition is cause of disease
    primary nutritional disease
  54. –Occurs as complication of another disease or condition
    secondary nutritional disease
  55. –Ingestion of food orally
    –Delivery of nutrients through GI tube
    enteral nutrition
  56. –Infusion of solution of nutrients directly into vein to meet client’s daily requirements
    parenteral

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